Written in post-Exilic, Persian reign. Zechariah's name means "The Lord remembers".
Exile was 70 years. This was their literal generations. Darius = Cyrus.
He says do not be like your ancestors.
Persia only went to war if the other nations that were conquered didn't pay tribute to them. God let Israel return. Cyrus also lets them because Isaiah prophesied that he would help them 200 years before he was born.
v.8 - Vision: 4 horsemen [Revelation shows this too]. The 4 horsemen have gone and the earth is at peace but Israel is in Exile so they ask "what will be done?" This is asked by the martyrs too in Revelation (a continued motif). God says He is returning them.
"4 horns". These are the horns/nations that scattered Israel. Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Medes. God gave them power to scatter them and he can bring them back just as easy.
2:5 - A man is measuring Jerusalem.
Land of the north mentioned is Babylon.
The New Jerusalem is prophesied. It is not this physical one yet. All nations and Jews are in this vision together. Revelation uses this imagery as well in it.
Joshua is seen as High Priest and the devil is at his right hand. He is filthy and he needs a new robe. The worship on earth prophesied will be a real worship. A warning is given though as God brings a servant who can see everything. This is why there are "7 eyes".
A pit is prepared for the wicked on this Day of the Lord. Jesus is coming. This is prophesying Jesus/Joshua/aka Yeshua.
A gold, 7 branch lampstand with 2 olive trees. This is the Word of the Lord. In the Temple, the lampstand burned continously and this symbolized the presence of God.
God essentially says that "you're not going to accomplish greatness by yourself and conquering nations. It will be by trusting Me and being in My Presence. It is noteworthy that Revelation has 7 lampstands who are churches filled with His Presence, which will leave if they do not repent.
Olive trees - Joshua and Zerubabbel are these two. They are to bear good fruit.
Flying sickle - It will harvest the crops. Good wheat will be saved and the bad will be cut off. The bad wheat's heads will be cut off. Symbolic of judgment.
A woman in this vision is seen without a basket. It should be noted that Babylon has already fallen at this time. The mention of it is symbolism for ancient evil. Babylon was old even in Abraham's day and time and age. The Tower of Babel represents the sins of this world.
"4 chariots going out from the middle of 2 mountains".
Mountains of copper.
1st chariot: red horses.
4th: dapple gray.
This vision is from God's perspective. The past, present, and future events from God's perspectives. Revelation does this in similar fashion. From God's perspective, He has already won. The battle that we, the faithful are engaged in will be victorious and already is. Already, but not yet.
516 BC - we see events about all of this but also in general, the past, present, and future.
The Apostle John has the same horses in Revelation. They are the same horses. They are the 4 wind spirits of heaven that are traveling to be near the earth.
The people of the north (Japheth's people) are mentioned. One day, these Gentiles (Greeks) and others will come into the covenant the way Judah is (6:1-8).
6:9-15 - Anatole is mentioned. The name means "the East". It talks about finding the people of Babylon of high wealth and them making a crown for this Joshua and crowning him as a king. There however already is a king, Zerubabbel. This Joshua also can't be a High Priest and King because under the Old Covenant you cannot have both jobs. This Joshua that exists in Zechariah's time could never be a king... however, there is a Joshua that can. This Joshua is a symbol for Christ who will be the New High Priest and New King. He is also the "East" from on-high. There is another Joshua and that Joshua is Yeshua, Jesus.
These other people offering at Bethel are asking if they are wrong. Zechariah answers through the Lord: You've been exiled for 70 years. Were you ever really repentant? If you've repented, he tells them what to do and if they do, it will all work out.
V. 11-14 - They didn't do it back then and got Exile as a result.
Spiritual Jerusalem and Zion are talked about here, not the Jerusalem that is currently in rubble (8:1-9). Many will come from the east and the west. These words are directed to this remnant, not to ethnic Israel. Faithful people will all come to God. A new covenant is being promised and all the nations will come in to it. They will all remember fasts and feast with God because the Bridegroom is with them. We fast today while/ we wait for the Bridegroom to return.
All of Israel's enemies are dealt with. All neighboring nations will receive justive for what they have done.
9:9-11 - A king will come who will bring peace and bring salvation for all men. He rides a donkey and a horse. This was fulfilled quite literally on Palm Sunday by Christ. He will rule them in peace. "He will rule over the waters to seas and rivers", he will rule all lands.
9:11-17 - Military language is used but the Jews of Jesus' time will forget the first lines that the "blood of the covenant" will free the prisoners from the waterless pit mentioned. Their evil pagan influences will be brought down so they will follow God through this sacrifice. Christ fulfills this by the Cross and installing the New Covenant on and through it.
God's judgment was on the shephards (leaders) of Israel so he cares for the sheep. Victory will come to His people. He mentions the Assyrians who have all been beaten already in his day since Persia is currently in charge and in power.
He shows us in a final sense how he will deal with the evil and shows us the past to prove it.
11:13 - A kiln, a furnace. The 1st staff are the people who have broken covenant. 30 pieces of silver is what Israel gives them when God asks what He is worth. Judas as we know betrays Jesus for 30 pieces of silver which is the price of a Jewish slave. Blood-money which Potters' Field was bought with.
V. 11-17 - These people will get another shephard who does evil to them. This guy will receive judgment too. Many examples pop up for nasty folks like this: Saul is one, Pilate, Nero, Titus, Domitian... It is not a particular individual who is the antichrist or man of sin for it is many figureheads and earthly kings. This man of sin is an amalgamation.
12:1-14 - a seige on Jerusalem is made from all nations.
v. 10 - "They shall look upon Me whom they have pierced". John quotes this after the Centurion pierces Christ and they will mourn this Son.
This is a description of the Day of the Lord. Also known as Christ's death.
On this day "They (all nations) will realize what they have done". They have turned on the "Jerusalem of God", Jesus. The Messiah is clearly God Himself since it refers to Himself. Rome had all people from all nations since it has all sorts of people from all nations with the Jews as well.
God does not offer the pagan nations as a sacrifice. He offers Himself. God is struck. God is peirced. While the world is against God as a whole, He offers Himself so they end up grieving Him and are then forgiven and restored to God by repentance.
From the perspective of heaven and God, the demons are thrown down and defeated thanks to Christ.
4 are mentioned to mourn. Why them? David because he is King. Nathan, because he is prophet. Levi because he is priest. Simeon becaue he is a tribe who was wiped out but yet was grafted in, we see this told to us in Ezra-Nehemiah. Simeon is the Gentiles. All of these mourn.
13:6 - crucified. God will purify a people and false prophets will be destroyed after the Day of the Lord.
14:1-7 - During Crucifixion, there was darkness.
14:8-21 - One lord and one king rules all people of the earth. The Final Judgment idea comes into focus here. Some get cut off for unfaithfulness. The others will be worshipping in a New Jerusalem after the 2nd Coming. The Jerusalem Jesus literally walked around and on wasn't the New Jerusalem that is to come. The 2nd Coming is what is in focus here. A True Jerusalem to never be destroyed approaches. Everything is holy and restored to original and eternal goodness.