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Thursday, May 2, 2024

Gospel of John - Chapters 16-21 Notes

Chapter 16


[Scripture and Tradition go hand in hand and agree with one another saying the same thing]

The Church will be persecuted. The Rabbinical Jews will throw the Early Christians out of the synagogues. Around 108 AD, all of the Great Sanhedrin agreed to kick the Messianic Jews out (Christians). These people (Pharisees) even think they are doing right for God. St. Paul, when Saul, will do this until he converts. The Early Christians believed they were the true Jewish religion. Christ fulfills not destroys Torah. People like Paul will think they are serving God by murdering the Christians. 


None of you understand where I (Jesus) am going. Continues talking about when He departs, it will be better because they will have the Holy Spirit of God dwelling in Him. It is better because God will be with us; more connected with us. When the Spirit comes; the Advocate, He will convict the world of sin and righteousness, and of judgment of sin. They will get the same judgment for rejecting God as Satan does.

Jesus has more to teach them and tell them but they are not ready, so He says when the Spirit comes, He will guide them to truth. He, the Spirit, will glorify the Son who glorifies the Father. He will ascend and govern the world in righteousness. He will establish justice and judgment at the Ascension. Satan has lost at the Cross and the 2nd Coming is when he will face His sentence. 


Jesus predicts His death, Resurrection, and the Ascension. Jesus also says that He has talked to them figuratively a LOT but won't for long. Jesus says they will scatter and abandon Him but He will still have His Father. They will be of good cheer though later for He has overcome the world and its evil rulers. 

Chapter 17


The Hour has come. He prays for His disciples and for those who are taught by the apostles and their disciples; apostolic succession. 

He gives this prayer like a High Priest would before making a sacrifice. He will send the apostles out to save the world after His Resurrection and Ascension.


Prayer for the Apostles. 


Prays for the Church.


A step forward, not just for the Church but all people in eschatologically that will be.

Chapter 18


Jesus is in control the entire time. When Jesus finishes speaking they go over to the Brook Kidron where there is a garden that they enter. The Garden of Gethsemane. It was essentially like being at a national park for the modern context. Judas comes and betrays Jesus. They have guards to take Him. Jesus asks who they are looking for and they say "Jesus of Nazareth"? Jesus answers, "I AM". When He says it, they all draw back and fall on the ground. Jesus is arrested. Peter tries to hack the high priest's servant and cuts off Malchus' right ear. Jesus also protects the Disciples. Peter tried to kill Malchus here.


Jesus is led to Annas, the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the High Priest that year. Peter and John followed Jesus. Caiaphas knew St. John too it says. John had some connections to get him and Peter in the courtyard of the Great Sanhedrin. The girl who holds the door talks to Peter. She is not threatening. She knows St. John and knows he is Jesus' disciple. Peter warms up with the guards. The High Priest asks what Jesus is teaching. Jesus answers. They already know this stuff. 

One of the officers decides Jesus is disrespectful so he hits Jesus. Someone striking someone is against the Torah and he does this against Jesus. 

Annas sends him to Caiaphas. Peter denies Jesus again when the guards ask if he is a disciple and again when Malchus' relative points him out too. The guards saw him and knew him. Machus' cousin also saw Peter. 


They lead Him next to the Praetorium. They are willing to murder a man on Pascha but not step foot into the Praetorium, a place where the Roman military stayed and sacrificed idols there too. They do this so they can eat Passover. Pilate is peeved at this and goes out confused asking what is going on. 

They tell him Jesus is a criminal and Pilate tells them to go away. Then they say that they "can't execute Jesus". 

Pilate enters the Praetorium again and asks "Are you the King of the Jews?" Jesus answers, "Do you think so or did someone ask you this?"

Pilate: "Am I a Jew? Your own people hate you. What have you done man?"

Jesus tells Pilate His Kingdom is not from here because if it were, His servants would fight. This is in large contrast to Rome with the large amounts of violence it commits. 

Pilate asks then: "Are you a King then?"

Jesus responds: "You say (rightly) I am a King". He tells Pilate He is here to bear the Truth. This is His purpose He was born for, came, and incarnated. Pilate responds with "What is Truth?" Pilate is bewildered and frustrated and walks back to the Jews saying, "he is innocent". Pilate only "cares" because his wife had a dream about Jesus earlier so Pilate is looking for a way out of this and tries to make a deal so he can let Jesus go. So he says Jesus or the robber Barabbas can be released and then the Jews choose Barabbas. 

Chapter 19


So Pilate takes Jesus and has Him scourged. The soldiers twist a crown of thorns around Jesus' head and put a purple robe on Him. They mock Him and all but executes Jesus here. This would almost kill someone and often did kill people/ because it was a whip with glass and shards that ripe your flesh off. Pilate trries again to release Jesus and says "he is innocent". Isn't this enough I beat an innocent man you hate?


Pilate says: "Behold the Man!" - he is disgusted with the Jews here. Behold humanity! He already thinks they are dirty non-person Jews and thinks they are worse than animals and this just confirms it for him, to the point he looks at them like they are rabid dogs - an insult to all humanity.

Pilate gives them a chance and the Jews say to "Crucify (torture) Him!" The Jews then tell him that Jesus claims that He is the Son of God (a Roman title). This forces Pilate to act and so he tries to use his authority to get Jesus to answer who He is. Jesus responds "You have no power". 

Pilate tries to release Him and tries to get a way out but then the Jews try to yell that he is no friend of Tiberius Ceasar, who has killed a lot of Romans. Pilate now has to act. It is the Day of Preparation now. 

The chief priests declare, "we have no king but Ceasar". It should be Yahweh. They have here rejected God for the kingdom of this world (Satan). 


Christ bears the Cross and is crucified at Golgotha, Place of the Skull, with two others. Jesus is in the center. Pilate wrote a title on the Cross that read in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin: Jesus of Nazareth: King of the Jews.

The chief priests protest at this but Pilate dismisses them. 

In Latin, it is called Calvary Hill. It was called this because in 2nd Temple literature, they believed Jerusalem was Eden and Adam's grave was there at Golgotha. Inside the hill is supposed to be where Adam had died and been buried. The 2nd Adam died here like Adam. 


Mary, Mother of Christ, Mary, wife of Cleopas, and Mary Magdelene are there. Mary, Jesus' mother has her step-children. She has St. James who even Josephus claims was a righteous and good holy man. 

Mary, Jesus' mother, is always referred to as the mother of Jesus and Jesus in John's Gospel is always calling her WOMAN. Until this place in Scripture he calls her MOTHER. This is to hearken back to Genesis where Eve was not called Mother of all who live until she gave birth to Cain. She is not now just St. John's "Mother" of all who live now, bnt is to ALL PEOPLE. She is the New Eve, and Mother of the Church. They are all family now. The New Eve theology comes from St. John to Polycarp, to Ignatius, Clement, and St. Irenaeus. 


All is fulfilled and Jesus then says "It is finished" (finished/fulfilled). He then dies and gives up His spirit.


[Ephesus was the hub of Christendom in the 1st CE after 70 AD] John doesn't take care of Mary solely. It is that Jesus' mother is now the mother of all the Church. It is now the Day of Preparation and the Jews ask Pilate to break their knees so they all die faster and quicker. Jesus had already died so they didn't bother to break His legs. Typically, the bodies weren't taken down and put in a tomb. Usually, criminals would be put into a mass grave. One soldier pierces Jesus to make sure He is dead and more scripture is then fulfilled by this action. Jesus' side being opened up is reminiscent of Adam's side getting pulled out while he's "asleep" to create Eve. When His side is pierced, his wife, the Church, and He are one. He has now created the Church. The Church is now created by "water and blood", baptism, and the Eucharist. 


Joseph of Arimathea, a secret disciple of Jesus, for fear of the Jews, asks Pilate for His body so that they can bury Him, and Pilate allows it. Nicodemus also comes and brings 100 lbs of myrrh, aloe, etc. They wrapped His body in linen, took His body there to a garden, and placed Him in a new tomb so they laid Him there. 

Chapter 20


It is Sunday now. John doesn't talk about Saturay because He said earlier, "it is finished", the same work in Greek is used in Genesis 2 when the Lord completes Creation. As God rested, Christ now rests in the Tomb on the 7th Day. This is how Jesus fulfills the Sabbath. 

Mary Magdalene, on the Sabbath, can't do anything then but she goes the first thing in the morning to the tomb only to find the stone has been rolled away. She and the other women with her run to Simon Peter and John to tell them because she thinks someone has stolen His body. Peter and John race there; John says he ran and won the race. John doesn't go into the tomb but sees the linen cloths there while Peter goes in and sees it and the handkerchief that was on His head. They still didn't get that Christ had been raised from the grave. They go back home because they have seen a miracle but they don't know what to do with it. Thieves would not have folded the clothes and handkerchief, more proof that someone came out.


Mary, outside the tomb, looks down; she has stayed behind. She still thinks thieves or the priests have done something. She then sees two angelic beings. John and Peter didn't see them. She's still committed because she calls Jesus LORD. She turns and Jesus shows up but at first she didn't recognize Him. She thought He was the gardener and asks Him where He put the body. Jesus, the Gardener, says "Mary" and she goes, "Rabbi!" Jesus tells her, "Do not touch Me as I have yet to Ascend to My Father". He does not want her to cling to Him because He must go to the Father. He will still be present with them but in a different manner, through the Holy Spirit. If she clings to Him now, and can't let go of Him, she may never receive the Holy Spirit. So he tells her to go tell the disciples and she does as told. 

"I am alive and things are changing!" This is done so we accept that His life isn't merely continuing in the same state as it was before. He is moving forward to Ascend. The apostles do not believe her.


The 10 meet and are scared that the Jews were about to get them. Jesus appeared then and stood in their midst saying, "Peace be with you". They were shocked and overjoyed and He shows them His hands, feet, and side. 

There is an anticipation of Pentecost shown here where Jesus breathes on them and says, "Receive the Holy Spirit". Just as God breathed on Adam, here Jesus does this too giving them the anticipation of New Life. Soon He will give them the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Forgiveness happens within the Church and God absolves, not the priest. 

Thomas wasn't with them when Jesus came. They tell him and he doesn't believe. He says he has to touch Jesus to accept this as true. 8 days later, Jesus shows up again and Thomas believes, saying "My Lord and my God". Jesus is God Incarnate. 


John says Jesus did way more than He listed but he wrote this so you will believe that Jesus is God, Christ, Son of God. We should recall that there has been an entire generation since the apostles, 60 years later probably or more. 

Chapter 21 

John writes an Epilogue here. 


After all this, Jesus showed up again. Peter, Thomas, Nathaniel, the sons of Zebedee, and two others (John included) go fishing. They did not catch anything. Jesus was on the shore and they did not realize it was Him. Jesus asks if they have any food. They say no so Jesus tells them to cast the net and they will find some. They do and so much so that they can't pull the net up. John realizes it is Jesus. Peter puts his shirt back on and then jumps in the sea to swim after Jesus. The disciples follow after and when they get to the shore, they eat with Jesus. The net did not break even though they caught 153 fish in all. 153 fish symbolizes all the nations of humanity that they will reach out to. 

Jesus says "Come and eat breakfast". They didn't dare to ask Jesus who He was because they knew He was Him. So Jesus took the bread they had and the fish and they all ate. This is the 3rd time that He showed up, post-Resurrection.


Jesus asks Simon Peter, Son of Jonah, do you love Me more than the other disciples? Peter denied Jesus 3x and had claimed he loved Jesus this way earlier. "Are you still claiming this?" Peter says Yes. Jesus says "Feed my lambs". He asks it again and says tend My sheep. The 3rd time Jesus asks it, Peter gets upset and says, "feed my sheep.". He does it 3x because Peter denied Jesus 3x. He says to Peter that he will eventually get martyred. When you are old you will die by crucifixion. Peter was indeed crucified as an old man by Emperor Nero around 67 AD. It has been 30 years at least since he was martyred. 

Peter asks about St. John and Jesus doesn't say John won't die but he does say it doesn't matter how he will; it'll be when He wills it to be. John likely wrote this to clarify that yes, he will die, and that no, he is not immortal. He will die before Jesus' 2nd Coming takes place. He ends his testimony here and dies under the reign of Trajan in 100 AD. 

Gospel of John - Chapters 8-15 Notes

Chapter 8


Jesus went to the Mt. of Olives. They sleep under the stars every time they go to Jerusalem. They stay in houses sometimes but in Jerusalem, this has been the common thing He has been doing. 

The Pharisees and scribes bring a woman in adultery to Jesus, and they tell Him she was caught in the very act. Where is the man if she was caught in the act? They aren't being honest and they are exploiting a woman here. They say that Moses commands her to be stoned. They are trying to get Jesus to publicly oppose Moses. This is a trap. If you read the Torah, two willing people committing adultery are to be punished. Also. if she was raped, she is protected under Torah.

Jesus says if any of you are without sin, feel free to stone her. All of them walk away because they aren't sinless and publicly they'd show someone wasn't a sinner. They all leave and leave the woman there. Jesus asks where all her accusers are and she says "No one". Jesus is actually sinless and could condemn this woman but He is here to show mercy so He tells her to get up and "go and sin no more". 


Jesus speaks to the Pharisees again and says, "I am the Light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness but have the Light of Life". The Pharisees respond that Jesus is bearing false witness. 

[God called Israel to live differently to light the way to bring the Gentiles to Yahweh and they failed. He is replacing Himself with Israel here for Jesus is the True Israel].

Jesus says that even if He did bear witness alone it would be true because He knows who He is, what He is doing is the Father's will, and He knows God because He is God. They are spiritually sick and He is not. 

Jesus also shows here that He is the Judge, and isn't judging now, because He wants to save them. You can't accept the Father and reject Jesus. The Pharisees know He is God and willingly reject Him for darkness and evil. They will die in their sins chasing after Jesus when He ascends and not be able to get Him so they will go after His followers (reference to Revelation is found here too). He tells them He is God; I AM, the Name of God. They will die in their sin if they don't believe. 

The present age is under dark spiritual powers. The world will be changed much like the Flood changed the world. Those who didn't; change for God stay in the world and perish while believers get the New World and coming age. 

Jesus keeps saying "I AM". He is God and the Pharisees will know who He is when they crucify Him. 


The ones who decide to follow Him Jesus talks to and says "If you are truly His disciples you'll love Me and follow and truly abide and know. You'll be set free from bondage from the enemy (Pharisees, Rome, demons, etc). He is also not telling them to break the Law. They answer: They've never been slaves. They don't know the Torah. They are more like Egypt, Babylon, etc. They don't know God.  


Jesus responds that He knows they are Abraham's biological descendants but they seek to kill Jesus so the reality is that they are not special because they act just like the pagans and are thus sons of Satan following Satan's will versus following God's will. God doesn't care about biology. He cares about their faith. When Abraham met God He didn't try to kill God and they are. The Jews are aware of His birth since they accuse Him of being a bastard - they say he was born from fornication. They are basically accusing Him of that and Mary of being a whore or a liar about Jesus' birth - the Virgin Birth. 

If they knew God He says they would love Him but they are not willing to receive Him and His words. They are not children of God. They could be but won't accept Jesus' words. They then accuse Him of being a demon-possessed Samaritan. 


The Jews continue with the accusation that He is demon-possessed. They say this because Jesus is talking about how He knows Abraham even though He is not even 50 years old. He would have to be ancient or be God to know Abraham. They try to stone Jesus when He tells them He is God and was there even before Abraham existed. He is I AM. Yahweh Incarnate. Jesus escapes the Temple. It is not His time and so they cannot kill Him. 

Chapter 9


Jesus walks by a man who has been blind from birth. The disciples ask Him whether the man was born blind due to him sinning or the man's parents having sinned. Jesus answers "Neither". but says that man is blind so that the works of God should be revealed in him. He heals the man. The man is not cursed. If He knows Christ he is really seeing. Jesus spits in the clay and heals the man by putting it in his eyes. When God creates Adam He creates him from clay. What is implied here is that He is creating new eyes for this blind man and this man very well might have had no eyes. Jesus has him wash in the Pool of Siloam and he can then see. The neighbors ask what is happening and he tells them about a man named Jesus. 


They bring the former blind man to the Pharisee now. This is a sign and a miracle. He must be the Messiah. It had been the Sabbath when Jesus did this. The Pharisees get angry because He did this on the Sabbath, a day you're not supposed to do any work. They do not understand the purpose of the Sabbath. People start questioning the Pharisees "How can a sinner do such miracles?" This causes divisions. The Pharisees ask the blind man what He thinks about Jesus and he tells them He is a Prophet. The Jews don't believe he was born blind now until his parents come and say so. They say "i don't know ask him" because they will get kicked out of the synagogue for professing Jesus is the Messiah. The ex-blind man says "I don't know if he is a sinner but I now see". They keep questioning him and he goes "You don't listen. Why do you ask again? Want to be His disciple?" 

The Pharisees answer "we don't know Jesus. We know Moses". So the ex-blind guy says: This is fascinating. You don't know Him but He has healed me". He lectures the Pharisees here with a proper understanding. He says God would not help a sinner do a miracle. He would be a good and righteous man though because He is from God. The Pharisees get angry and cast the ex-blind man out. 

The man meets up with Jesus again after learning he was cast out and accepts Jesus as Lord and Messiah. Jesus makes the blind see and the blind. You cannot be healed if you won't admit you are blind/sick - the Pharisees could be saved. 

Chapter 10

Jesus' conversation continues with the Pharisees. 


He gives an illustration with a sheepfold gate. The one who enters the proper door knows the sheep and has raised them so he opens and they follow. The robber comes in the wrong way. A stranger would leave and flee (the sheep). 


Jesus is the Door of the Sheep. The robbers and thieves are the Pharisees who tried and failed to lead the sheep (people). The sheepfold is where the sheep are safe. Christ says He is the Good Shepherd. The robber will destroy the sheepfold, kill the sheep, or try and steal one away from the Shepherd (God). The Pharisees are like Satan due to this and do, in fact, work with him. When a wolf comes, the good shepherd will fight for them versus this predator. The wolf is Satan through the Pharisees. The Pharisees abuse the people and let the people be preyed upon. They do not care about the people. 

There is division among the people/ again and some claim Jesus is demon-possessed while others say that he healed a blind man and that demons don't do that. Jesus talks about these sheep (Jews) and other sheep (Gentiles) and that they will be onefold under the One Shepherd (Jesus). 


It is winter and the Feast of Dedication now. A break. Jesus walks into the Temple and onto Solomon's Porch. They try to surround and force Him to tell them whether He is the Messiah publicly. This is also on the Feast of Dedication so everyone is thinking about Judas Maccabees and the Maccabeean Revolt right now. 


Jesus says "I've told you before but you don't listen". They are not His sheep. Jesus calls them out and says that they are far from God and tells them why they are unwilling to follow. He then says "I and my Father are One". 

They hear this and then try to stone Him again for blasphemy for declaring He is God. Jesus responds with Scripture (the OT) and the 81st Psalm that says "You are gods" (Ps 81 or 82 in the LXX). The Divine Council should be kept in mind here as it is in Ps 81/82. Yahweh is High King there while the kings claiming they are gods will fall. 

The Scripture Jesus says "Can't be broken!" These people are referred to as gods. He declares He is God the Son and so they try to stone Him yet again. 

If these fallen kings can be called gods why can't Jesus who was sent by God be called a god? More so! He is God and God Incarnate! 

Jesus leaves and goes to the place where John was baptizing at first and He stays there for a time. Many come and find Jesus and believe in Him. John the Baptist did no miracles and people believed in him. Jesus meanwhile does miracles and they disbelieve. 

Chapter 11

There is a shift here and we are now at the last week before Jesus dies and is raised. Everyone gets excited after this event because this is where Jesus raises Lazarus of Bethany. In Matthew and Mark's Gospel, the Patristics say they were structured around St. John's Gospel. Papias confirms this along with others. John gives us the big picture while the other three have a focus more on what point they are sharing. By 180 AD we eventually know we have the 4 Gospels altogether as a unit. 


Jesus is another town. Lazarus, his friend has died after getting sick. He stays two days in the place He was at instead of going to see Martha, her sister, and Lazarus. He treks for four days to Judaea, six days since they told Jesus Lazarus was sick. The disciples ask why Jesus will go back since Jews are trying to kill Him there. Jesus responds with "it is time to go do this" (heal and revive Lazarus). Jesus says Lazarus is "asleep" and He will go to "wake" him up. No one has yet told Jesus that Lazarus has died. Jesus allowed Lazarus to pass away to glorify God and show His works. The disciples don't get that Jesus is saying Lazarus died until He says it plainly to them. Jesus is going to do this to show the people the glory of God. Thomas knows if they go to Bethany, they are probably going to die with Jesus. At the moment he is ready to die with Him. 


They have already had Lazarus in the tomb for 4 days. John is in Ephesus so he explains where Bethany is in Judaea for that reason. The Greeks would not know where this is, especially considering that Jerusalem has been ruined since 70 AD and only began rebuilding somewhat in 80 AD. When Jesus shows up, Martha comes up to Jesus a bit upset but with faith and says "If you had been here, my brother would be alive". She believes Jesus is special and maybe at the very least believes He is a prophet. Jesus tells her that he will "get up/rise again" - someone who is physically dead becoming physically alive. The same body that goes into the tomb comes out of the tomb. 

[Job 19] Jesus weeps for Lazarus and says "I Am the Resurrection". He "groaned" in the Spirit - a laborious pain, kind of groaning here, shaking. Jesus is almost a bit troubled. The horrors of death are before Him ruining His Creation. Jesus calls out Lazarus from the grave. Lazarus revives and comes walking out.


Many come to believe but some go to the Sanhedrin/Pharisees and tell them about all this and this triggers a showdown. The Pharisees become concerned because the commoners they hate think Jesus is the Messiah/King and they fear that the Romans will get upset and ruin Jerusalem and their gig here making money. 

Caiaphas the high priest that year gets involved and says that one man should die rather than all the people - a utilitarian argument here. Caiaphas doesn't realize it but he spoke prophetically in v. 49-52. They commit to killing Jesus. Jesus travels to Ephraim for a time. The Passover draws near and many people from all around are arriving. 

Chapter 12


The Pharisees put a WANTED list out on Jesus. Jesus and the Apostles all eat at Lazarus' home with Martha and Mary, his sisters. Lazarus sat at the table with Jesus and Mary anoints His feet. This oil is quite expensive and Judas gets pissed off, not because he cares for the poor but because he has been stealing from their money box that was for the whole group to share. 

Many of the Judeans come to see Jesus and Lazarus. The chief priests plot to murder Lazarus too also because of his rising from death, many Jews believe in Jesus. 


Triumph of Palm Sunday

Jesus is received here in a parallel way to the Roman Emperor. This peasant looks like a challenge to Ceasar. Zechariah 9:9 is quoted. God will return to His people and rescue them, bringing them out of the Exile. Clearly, John is saying that Jesus is God here. The people praise Jesus with "Hosanna! Praise Him!" and only when Jesus was glorified did John say they understood what had happened here and what had been fulfilled. This is also fulfilling a judgment on Israel. 


The people who saw Lazarus be raised bear witness about Jesus. The Pharisees tell the Chief Priest he has accomplished nothing with the bounty. There are some Greeks who have come to Jerusalem and go to see Phillip of Bethsaida because he is a Jew who could speak Greek. These Greeks were likely part of the fad where they were intrigued with Jerusalem (those they call God-fearing Gentiles). Phillip tells Andrew and they tell Jesus.

Jesus answers them with "The hour has come that the Son of Man should be glorified". He then talks about a grain of wheat falling and dying, to produce much grain. He is telling them He has come to die to bring salvation to all people. If anyone serves the Son they honor and serve the Father. 

Jesus is troubled but this is His purpose and His will. Christ has two wills: the Divine and human will. God did not create us to die. Death is foreign to Him. It is foreign to God and humanity; we all have an abhorrence to Death. Jesus then says to the Father, "Glorify Your Name!" Then a voice from heaven; a response from the Father that is audible says, "I have... and will glorify it again". 


Some claim to have heard thunder. Those closer claim it was an angel and Jesus tells the crowd that they have heard the Father's voice.


"Now is the judgment on this world". Satan is about to lose His power. When He is raised, He will draw ALL PEOPLE(s) to Himself. ALL PEOPLE will be able to be saved. Choose this day your god to serve. The people see He is saying He will die so they wonder how He will raise back up if He dies. They think Messiah is to remain around forever. 


Jesus responds: For a while longer, the light (Him) is with you. Walk while you have the light (Jesus), lest darkness (the world) overtake you... because if you're in the dark you'll stumble because you can't see. These words were hidden from the people. They didn't accept them. They don't understand because to them the Messiah is supposed to establish a kingdom forever. So if He dies how can He do that? Not in the way the Jews expected obviously - through His death and His Resurrection. 

A major change is taking place soon through the Cross. People will be judged and cut off and there will be a remnant. It is happening NOW. St. John the Baptist said earlier the axe was already at the tree. 


Although Jesus did and showed them so many signs and miracles, they did not believe, thus it fulfills Isaiah's prophecy in Isa 53 and 6:10. Still... some did believe even some of the "rulers" (Pharisees) but they would not confess because they would be kicked out of the synagogue. They cared more about the world than God. 

Isaiah 53 is John doing some apologetics here to explain why the people who were waiting for a Messiah rejected Him. Isaiah 53 is the Servant's Songs. It talks of the Messiah's woes and sufferings. The next is Isaiah 6 about Israel's judgment by the Assyrians. Here it is about Jesus bringing judgment through the Cross, later 70 and 132-136 AD, and so on. They will face the consequences of their actions. He will judge but also deliver His People. It is a pattern where God intervenes against evil. 


He has not come to condemn the world. The world condemns itself. He has come to save it. They judge themselves on the Last Day. They will be held accountable for their actions. 

Chapter 13


Before the Passover Feast, Jesus knew it was His hour to be killed and depart from here to the Father. John mentions that Jesus loved them all. After supper, Judas let the devil consume him and was planning to betray Jesus. Jesus already knew what was going to happen and began washing all the disciples' feet. Peter objects to this at first but Jesus then explains that he is preparing them for greater and so Peter then asks Jesus to wash all of him. He tries to show them and they get this all later, but Jesus is exercising authority and teaching them to be like Him here. 


He says before it happens that He knows Judas will betray Him and it was prophesied. He tells them one of them is a traitor and so all of them are asking, "Is it me?" They all had their doubts and didn't understand. Their loyalty is lost but they will redeem themselves. 


When Judas leaves, Jesus says, "NOW the Son of Man is GLORIFIED and God is glorified in Him". He is glorified through His sufferings, death, and the Cross. Christ is glorified so the Father too is glorified and tells them a new command to follow: To love another like He loved them. 

Chapter 14


Jesus tells them not to be troubled; "you believe in God, believe also in Me". Trust and worship and be loyal to Me like you are with God. 

"My Father's house" - the age to come, the Kingdom, the world to come is being prepared. He is going to the Cross to begin a New Heaven and a New Earth through the Resurrection. Things will all begin to be made New through the Resurrection. 

The New Creation will be resurrected and transfigured. All of the universe will be changed. Jesus talks of the 2nd Coming but also talks of enduring martyrdom here. Thomas and Phillip both get confused and have been with Him for three years and still don't get what Jesus says here until later. 


The HELPER here is the Holy Spirit. He is to come. Christ does not abandon the Apostles or us. The world doesn't get or receive God the Spirit because they don't see or know Him/Christ/the Father.


I will not leave you orphans. I will come to you. He describes the Ascension here. He is not going to leave them. If we have the Spirit, we also have the Father and the Son. The three are one Triune God. 

Judas (not Iscariot here) doesn't grasp this. Eternal life begins now and continues in the age to come.


Their "peace" is a whole concept of peace in personhood. A state where everything is in proper order. He is leaving them this PEACE. The ruler of this world (Satan) is coming and has nothing on ME (Christ). 

Chapter 15


Continues to speak and says "I am the True Vine. The Father is the Vinedresser. He uses an analogy here. Every branch that grows fruit is properly connected to the Vine. If they are not, they get cut off completely. If you are faithful you will produce fruit but be "pruned" so it ends up flourishing. It is painful at the time for the plant but ultimately a good thing for it. 

[The Early Christians believed Jupiter/Zeus existed and were demons/Satan].


Jesus prepares them for the Ascension and Pentecost. They will be persecuted by the kingdom of Satan/evil. The people of this world are ruled by Satan and they hate the Kingdom of God and God's people. 

The Spirit PROCEEDS FROM THE FATHER - No Filioque in the Creed. This is the Scripture that shares this scriptural truth that is also found in the Creed. 

Wednesday, May 1, 2024

Gospel of John - Introduction - Chapters 1-7 Notes


John's Gospel seems to assume there is some familiarity with the other gospels as it does not narrate the Baptism of Christ, His temptation in the desert, His Transfiguration, the events of the Last Supper, and much of the time narrates in a fashion where it assumes that the reader knows the basic events. In 3.24 for example, John assumes people know John the Baptist was in prison. In 7.42 he assumes people know Christ was born in Bethlehem. In many places, John presupposes that his audience knows the basic Gospel narrative. In 20.30-31, John shows he has written this Gospel to confirm Christ's divinity. At least a generation of 20-40 years or more after the three gospels have already been written because his gospel is more of an argumentation than the others. 

St. Irenaeus confirms this St. John is St. John of Zebedee in Against Heresies and he clearly states that John wrote it at Ephesus (A.H. 3.1.1). Eusebius also records this was learned by St. Ireneus through St. Polycarp, who learned from St. John himself. 

St. John here is the bishop of Ephesus and is the same writer who wrote 1, 2, 3 John and the Revelation where he had authority over all these 7 Churches (Rev 1:7). This Gospel was likely written in 85 AD or later. Some believe it may have even been written after the Revelation during the reign of Domitian but this is speculative. John is also likely older because he consistently uses the term "Jew" far more to distinguish who the unbelievers are versus believing Christians. The Tradition says the Greek is written the way it is in the Gospel of John versus the Revelation's sloppier version of Greek because the Gospel is scribed by St. Prochorus. John is said to have written Revelation without the help of St. Prochorus and this is why their Greek is so differently written. In the Gospel of John, Jesus is not merely the Savior of Israel but also the world and cosmos itself.

John actually comes first in a lot of the earliest canons. This may be because as Genesis is the first book of the Pentateuch, John does similar (which I will explain later).

The gospel is a list/telling of all Christ has done until He returns. It is told so you, the reader can prepare. John, likely, when he wrote his gospel filled in gaps the other three missed or overlooked. John also likely had access to the other three gospels. If there were more gospels written we do not have them today but the surviving gospels we have access to, and what the Holy Spirit apparently wanted for us, are Matthew, Mark, and Luke. I say this because Luke says there were many people who recorded what Jesus did and said. John probably wrote his gospel in Ephesus as this became the base of the Early Church and Christianity after 70 AD. Pieces like Mary Magdalene and Christ's mother are mentioned here because St. John was there with them in Ephesus.

St. John's in-depth writing shows he had some time and luxuries for himself to be able to write it. 

120 AD is the earliest copy we have of St. John's. It is a copy from Egypt. John died in 100 AD in the reign of Trajan. Tradition is constantly proving to be true about all this.

St. Papias records through Eusebius relating it to us that the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are not written in purely chronological order whereas St. John does write chronologically. 

Chapter 1


John starts the Gospel by being poetic with Who Jesus is like Genesis 1:1-2 is (a poem). Genesis: In the beginning (v.1)

"was" - imperfect - something continuous. In the Beginning, the Word WAS, and already existed. 

"Word" - Logos - Christ is the Reason for Creation. The Logos is God and a Person. 

"The Word of the Lord came to [insert OT prophet]"

The Word and God are distinct here and the Word was God. 

Both in Greek and Latin, there is no "a" or "the" God. They just say "this" or "some" God. 

It just means "the Word was God" (v.2). It says "He!" He, the Logos, is a Person. This "He" was with God in the beginning and is God also. 

V. 3 - He was not created because everything was created by Him with the Father and Spirit.

V. 4 - "In Him was this Life". God is the living God.

v. 5 - "The Light came and the Darkness did not comprehend it". The evil forces in the dark did not understand because of their sinfulness. 


John the Baptist is the man sent by God. He was a witness to testify Who Jesus is. He is unique to the Prophets. He was sent to show the Messiah is God and came in a special way that John is pointing out. John was baptizing and preparing a New People for the Messiah. Andrew, Peter, Phillip, and others were John's disciples first. 

God came, Incarnate, and people did not recognize Him. God gave some who received Him power and authority to become sons of God. 

"Sons of God" - heirs. Everyone (Male and Female) becomes heirs. Who you believe is who you worship. Choose this day your God. 


Continues in this poetic introduction. The Word Incarnated and "dwelt" / "Tabernacled" with us. "We beheld His glory"...

God's tent is being referenced here from the OT. The people of Israel camped around the tent. Jesus is God, Messiah, and the Temple. God has returned to His people. He is Jesus Christ. 

Note: When the Temple was rededicated, the Light never returned. God did not return. Even in Herod's time, it had not so the Jews believed they were still in Exile until God returned, and until that time, there would be no Restoration of Israel. They were all expecting God to return and set things straight but the Jews like the Pharisees end up losing focus and missing when God (Jesus) really does return. They believe they have to follow the Torah and do it perfectly. Even Orthodox Jews today say that if all Jews for one day followed the Torah perfectly, the Messiah and God they expect would return. 

Jesus has a physical body with flesh but kept His Glory. He is fully Man. He is unique (only begotten). We become sons of God by adoption. Jesus is not adopted. John also does not want us to think Jesus is a created being from the Father. 

"Only-begotten" is a term to show us that Christ is Unique. That is a better word to use. 

"Filled with Grace and Truth" - Grace is the activity of God working on Creation. 

Doxa and Shekinah are terms for Glory and the Presence/Radiance of God.

v. 15 - John the Baptist bore witness of Jesus and He is the One you should follow because He was here before John. John the Baptist testifies to the fact that Jesus pre-existed and is God. He is not just the Messiah.

v. 18 - "No one has seen God at any time" - We have and can only see the essence of God, not God's nature. God the Holy Spirit has shown up like a dove before and at Pentecost as fire. 


John says that he is not the Messiah and not Elijah. He does say he is the fulfillment of Isaiah 40... (remember when you read this here that there were no chapters or verses. You gave one line for shorthand and you would read the whole passage - on the scroll usually). With the whole chapter in mind, John is saying that he is the beginning of the Exile from Babylon being over. It is finally coming to an end and John is the Forerunner of it who announces it. This Messiah God won't just get us out of Exile from Babylon, but also bring us a New Eden. 


The Pharisees ask "if you are not these people, why are you baptizing?" John responds that the Messiah is born already and is here. 


The purpose of John's baptism was to present Christ to the world, the Lamb of God Who takes sin away. He testifies of the Spirit descending upon Him (Jesus) and this would be a sign that Jesus is the Christ. John the Baptist gives a baptism of water while Jesus gives a baptism of fire. This Jesus will baptize with the Holy Spirit - immersed in the Holy Spirit - filled. 

As you are immersed in water, you are to be immersed in the Holy Spirit. 


Elijah when he left, passed the torch to Elisha who would go on to be even greater. In a similar fashion, John and Jesus are the typologies on a deeper level. As Jesus walks, John says: "Behold! The Lamb of God!" John tells his two disciples to follow Jesus. 

Jesus asks, "What are you looking for?" "What do you seek?" They answer with, "Teacher, where are you staying?" St. John explains, that "rabbi" means "teacher", obviously because he is in Ephesus because not everyone is a Jew. This also lends credence to this gospel being written after 70 AD.

The Disciples don't answer His question. Jesus says however to "Come and see" and they come and saw where He was and remained with Him that Day on. 

10th Hour - 10th hour after sunrise. 

[From the beginning, Christianity saw itself as the continuation of the OT religion. In Orthodox Judaism, there is a procession with the Torah. In our Christian Liturgy, we do the Gospel because the Torah has been fulfilled in Christ and we don't celebrate the Old Pascha. We celebrate the New Pascha]

St. Andrew is 1st called. Brother of Simon Peter, Jesus renames him Cephas or the Rock or Petros which means stone, much like the nickname, Rocky. He gives a new name to Simon like Abram becomes Abraham because He is God. It is also a way to be intimate. Being the Rock shows us Peter is a tough guy. Jesus gives them a new name and new meaning to their lives. 

Jesus found Philip and said to Follow Him. Phillip finds Nathaniel. Nathaniel and Phillip are in the city of Bethsaida. He finds Jesus is from Nazareth (a small town) and asks rhetorically "Can anything come from here that is good?" Philip says "Come and see!" He asks this because Nazareth essentially is a small pop-up town basically. 

Jesus tells Nathaniel that before he was called, He knew Nathaniel. Nathaniel is now sold and declares Jesus is the Son of God, King of Israel. Jesus tells them they will see "heaven open, and angels ascend and descend" - a reference to Jacob's Ladder - saying that they will see heaven and earth will be connected through Him, the "Son of Man". 

Chapter 2


Cana is a small town in Galilee. Jesus' mother Mary attends it. Mary asks Jesus to help this couple who have run out of wine. His response is that "it is of minor concern and it is not yet time for me to reveal Myself". 

Mary is just called "woman" here and this is done on purpose to show Mary is the New Eve by St. John. Eve was not first called Eve. She was called "woman". After the Fall and giving birth to Cain, she is called Eve, the mother of all living.

There are waterpots there that are used for Jews to wash their hands before they eat so Jesus has them fill these back up. When they give it out, it is wine. They all say this is the best wine they have ever drank. 


At Passover, Jesus finds money changers selling animals for sacrifice. They were exchanging Roman money for Jewish money, like a cryptocurrency. Jesus drives them out and calls out the Jews and tells them to "Destroy this Temple and in three days I will raise it up" talking about Himself while the Jews misunderstand but the disciples remember Jesus telling them this. The Jews are confused by this and ask Him for a sign when Jesus says this. The sign will be His death and His resurrection. 

The Temple was unfinished. The Jews had been working on it for 46 years so this to them was seen as a threat (they think in earthly terms still instead of the heavenly). 

Chapter 3


A Pharisee named Nicodemus comes to see Jesus at night and tells Jesus that the Jews know He is from God and God is with Him. Jesus' active ministry was only 3 years. Nicodemus is part of the Sanhedrin so he comes at night to stay secretive and be in hiding. He calls Jesus a teacher and acknowledges Him. Jesus answers, "Truly unless one is born again, he cannot see God's Kingdom". Jesus doesn't answer direct questions here. 

The Pharisees want to see a literal kingdom that rises up and overthrows the Roman Empire. Nicodemus is an old man so he asks, "do I need to go back to my mother's womb to be born again?" Jesus then says you must be born of water and the Spirit to enter God's Kingdom. 

He is referring to Baptism and Chrismation. The Kingdom already exists. The question is though, will Nicodemus do what he needs to do to enter it? 

"Spirit" and "spiritual" in the Bible is ALWAYS CONNECTED and LINKED INTIMATELY with the Spirit of God. 

-born of the Spirit - means you will have properties of the Holy Spirit like a wind. It has direction but you cannot see it and find where it has a beginning or an end. Nicodemus needs to be born again to know who Jesus is. Nicodemus here is as of now confused. 

Jesus refers to Numbers when Moses lifts up the serpent in the wilderness to be saved from snake bites. Why did Moses get told by God to build a snake statue? They even had to destroy it later because people began to idolize it. Jesus predicts like the snake He will be put on a Cross. The bronze snake was there and crafted to let Israel see what was afflicting them. The Snake was seen as repulsive. Likewise, the Cross was repulsive to everyone but through it, Christ will cure the people of their sin which is like a poison to them. 

God so loved the world that He offered the Son to save everyone. The Son and Father desire this (as well as the Spirit). The word for "world" here is not just His people but ALL people. Adam was not a Jew. He is the ancestor of ALL humanity and no human is really our enemy, that human has just fallen to the enemy. 


St. John the Baptist is baptizing as is Jesus. There is a debate going on about purification so people come to John and tell him that Jesus is also baptizing. John responds that Jesus has been called to do it and He is Messiah and I (John) am the Forerunner. So be it". Jesus is the Bridegroom and John is the Best Man in this marriage analogy. John rejoices and is happy about this. The Bride is the New People of God. He is happy because they are "marrying" Jesus. John says "I come from the earth like Adam. Jesus is from above and God". When John speaks about God it is secondhand because he is a prophet. Jesus is primary because He has been with God and is God Incarnate. 


To reject Jesus is to not believe God. When God sends someone, the Spirit sends them. 


You're truly alive when connected with the Son who is God. Cutting yourself from God is not life even if you are biologically alive now. 

Chapter 4


The Jews see Jesus and His disciples baptizing more than John does. All apostles were baptized including Judas Iscariot. Jesus left Judaea and on His way to Galilee, He passed through Samaria and in a town called Sychar. Jacob's Well is there. Jesus was tired from His journey and so He sat at the well. It was six hours since sunrise. The well is where Jacob put 12 stones that became one stone, that sunk into the ground and drew water for 7 days (The Targum tells this legend). A Samarian woman comes to this well Jesus is at. He said to her "Give me a drink". Disciples were away. The woman asks, "You're a Jew. Why would you want a drink from me?" She is alienated because she is coming to the well for water at a time when it is hot. You would normally draw water in the morning. 

v. 11-14 - She references Jacob's Well legend here. Jesus says He would give her running fresh water; not stagnant water like this that is in the well. 

v. 15-20 - Give me this water she says! Jesus tells her to call her husband and I will give it to you. She says she has no husband. True. You have had five in the past and are not married to the 6th one that you have been living with. She was sent away 5x and this 6th one will not even marry her to give her dignity and is just using her. She says "I see you are a Prophet" and says "Our ancestors worshipped here while you Jews say otherwise. Which is true?"

v. 21-26 - An hour is coming when this question will be irrelevant. The Jews are right that they are worshipping in the right spot but they will worship in Spirit and Truth for God is Spirit. She says, "I know Messiah is coming" and Jesus tells her He is the Messiah. She says he will "tell them all things". The Samaritan Torah and Messiah weren't based on King David but on Prophet Moses instead, so Jesus shows her "I AM He". This woman will become known as St. Photini. 


The disciples show up and marvel that He is talking to a half-breed Samaritan woman. To top that off, he is talking to an unmarried woman in a public area. They say nothing. Photini tells others in her village to come and see this man who could be the Messiah. They come. The disciples tell Jesus to eat and call Him Rabbi, not Messiah like this Samaritan has. Jesus tells them He has food they don't have. He gives them another lesson like He did with the woman. He is saying, what is their concern? Eating? It should be to do the will of His Father who will and does nourish Him. He also says that He is finishing His Father's work. 

He is talking to the disciples about a harvest. They are being called to go and participate with Him to reap the reward and rejoice. 

The Samaritans believe Christ is the Messiah and He and the disciples stay in Samaria for two days. They call Him "Savior of the World" - a title for Ceasar, but specifically the title Augustus took. 

Jesus goes to Galilee and they accept because they have heard signs that He has done. These three regions are all filled with people who consider themselves all to be of Jewish descent. Many are half-breed or are even just Gentiles. Andrew and Phillip for example are Jews with Greek names, not Hebrew ones. 


Jesus is in Cana again (Galilean town) and heals a man's son who was sick in Capernaum. He says to everyone: Unless you all see Me do things you won't accept Me. This John says was the 2nd sign that Jesus did when He came out of Judaea into Galilee. This man does not need a sign and just asks Jesus for help and trusts that He will. 

Chapter 5


Another feast in Jerusalem happens. Sheep Gate - in Jerusalem is mentioned. There was a pool here called Bethesda which meant "sheep house". The pool was originally for sheep but is used now for other things and is now a hub for healing. An angel apparently had touched it and so the first person who would get in would be healed. A man who had been with an infirmity for 38 years is there.

Jesus asks this paralytic man if he would like to be made well. If Jesus heals him, this will be a new life for him. Can he handle it? Does he really want to transform his life? It will require sacrifices that he has never done before and require work. Jesus did this miracle on the Sabbath and it freaks the Pharisees out because they consider it to be a "work". At the Temple, Jesus also says, "sin no more". 


The Jews begin to persecute Jesus and seek to kill Him after this because He did this on the Sabbath. The Jews get mad for stupid and hypocritical reasons. The ex-paralytic went to the Temple to give thanks to God. He told the Jews Jesus had healed him. The Pharisees thought this man may have been healed by a demon. They think this because of their distorted reasoning on the Torah. They think Jesus is a false prophet. Jesus approaches them and says "My Father has been working until now". He has not just been resting, And I, the Son, am working.

These Jews do not understand the Sabbath. They have turned it into a rule and missed the point of why it is there. The Jews want to kill Him because He made Himself equal with God by saying God was His Father. Now it is them calling Him a false prophet and a blasphemer. They would be right if Jesus was not God Incarnate but He is God Incarnate. 

Jesus answers them back, despite their slander, calling them to repentance and trying to reason with them: The Son does what the Father does. 

[Through Jesus, we can know who God is because One is the Image of the other. They work continuously. They are not separate gods. There is no separation. The Father raises the dead (He will raise the Son) and in doing this, the Son will give Life. 

We all have sinned, so the wages of sin is death. The one who hears Me will live. God will return as Christ and raise all the dead. Some will have Life. Others will face condemnation (5:24-29). Jesus says He will be the one to judge. 

"The hour is coming and now is". Jesus is saying it is the Hour NOW.


Resurrection of the just and the unjust.


He is going back to the Torah here. It is not just Him as a witness. John has testified and witnessed. Also, the Father is having him finish His work.

For a while, he's saying, you, the Jews, liked St John the Baptist. Now He brings even greater. He calls God Himself as His witness. The Pharisees haven't heard from God on Mount Sinai. He has because He is God the Son. They spend all of their time reading and studying Scripture (OT) but they do not live like they are told to do because if they did, they would recognize Who Jesus is: God Incarnate. They are also unwilling. 

If they do not believe Jesus, they do not believe Moses. They will believe anyone else versus believing Jesus sadly, and this will be made in great display unfortunately in 70 AD and the Bar Kochba Rebellion. 

Chapter 6


Jesus goes through the Sea of Galilee/Tiberius. He heals and people follow Him. He goes to a hill/mountain and sits there with the Disciples. It is almost Passover and Jesus sees people coming and asks St. Phillip where they will buy bread to feed all these people. Phillip says they would not have enough even with 200 denari of bread. They don't have any money. Andrew says a man has 5 loaves and 2 small fish but that won't be enough. 5000 men (plus families) which could mean 10-12,000 people. Jesus gave thanks (eucharisto) and then had the Disciples distribute. Everyone gets fed and filled. Jesus then has them gather the leftovers and there are 12 bread baskets now, more than they had before. 


They try to make Him King so He departs from them. The disciples try to get where they need to be and Jesus is now seen by them to be walking on water. It was dark at this time. Water was seen as being awful and large quantities of it in particular often freaked Jewish people out. Boats and sailing were still largely in their infancy, so the Apostles obviously saw Jesus out here in the sea and freaked out over it. Jesus says to them, "It is I; do not fear".  


The people start following Him to go to Capernaum. When they found Him, they asked, "When did you come here?" Jesus responds, "You did not understand why I fed you but you're here for more food now. Labor for God instead of bread". They ask what they should do and Jesus says believe in Him and that He was sent by God. 


They ask what sign and work He will do. They just saw Him feed 5000 people. They say their ancestors fed them manna from heaven. Jesus responds that the Father gives the bread, not Moses. He says He is the Bread of Life; He is offering Himself and they're choosing worldly matters. The same applies to us as believers. He is talking about Himself as the Bread. He will nourish His believers. The people who have trusted in God, He will not be cast out because when they encounter God they recognize Him (Jesus). All believers He promises will be raised "up at the last day" (v. 39). Everyone who believes in Christ will have eternal life and He will raise him up at the last day (v. 40). 

Then they complain about Him because they don't like what he's said (not a free meal ticket). They ask "Is this not Jesus, son of Joseph, whose mom and dad we know?" They go how come is Jesus saying He is from heaven. They don't believe and don't recognize that Jesus is God Incarnate. 


The reason you don't recognize Me is you have no connection to God. If you were really listening to the Prophets, you'd know Me. Your ancestors are dead and got bread every day (that generation all died in the wilderness due to rebellion). Rejecting Christ has consequences. Accepting Christ brings us eternal life. Christ predicts His own death here (He will give His flesh for them and His blood; be a sin offering). 

v. 55-56 - Eucharist here. Whoever eats and drinks His Body and Blood will have eternal life and be raised on the Last Day. The Jews think "cannibalism"? They don't understand. 

It is His real Body and Blood. The Early Church accepts that and John would have also specified if this was supposed to be a metaphor or etc. to Christians of the 2nd CE. John wants us to think it is literal here. Jesus also taught this in the synagogue in Capernaum. 


Even the disciples find this to be tough to grasp. This sacrificial image bothers them. Jesus shows: if you have problems with this, you'll really have issues when I die, resurrect, and Ascend. After this, some wanted to betray Him and some of His disciples actually did leave (not the 12). Simon Peter tells Jesus he is in this for the long haul and John refers to Judas here as a devil. 

Chapter 7


Jesus was in Galilee, for the Jews wanted him dead, Judeans. The Feast of Tabernacles was taking place. His step-brothers (family) want Him to just go to Jerusalem and show He is really the Messiah. They aren't sure either about this. He tells them His time has not come yet. He has more to do. Their time to accept it is and can be NOW. He tells His own brothers they aren't hated by the world like He is because He testifies against the world while they are still yet like the world. He tells them to go ahead to the feast and He stays behind for a bit. He goes but goes undercover. The Pharisees are looking for him there based on a rumor. Some say Jesus is good and some say He is a deceiver but they didn't say it openly to the Jews. They are not ready. Even those who think He is good are not willing to publicly say it yet.


Jesus in the middle of the feast teaches at the Temple. They ask how this peasant is literate and can teach. Jesus says, "I am not making it up. I know God". There is a big difference between knowing God and knowing about God. Jesus says He is bringing glory to God, not Himself doing it out of pride. 

He calls them out. Did Moses who you respect and say knows God not give you the Torah? Why are you breaking the Torah? Calls them out for trying to kill him. They accuse him of having a demon and then ask "Who is trying to kill you?" It is a fact that they believe in angels and demons. Jesus says He did one thing (healed the paralytic) and you freak out (on the Sabbath). You circumcise on the 8th Day and if it falls on Sabbath and you still do it, is that not work? But now you're angry because I healed a whole person! You're being superficial! Think about what you're saying. he says to the Jews. He says don't judge based on appearance alone. 

The onlookers see this and see and think Jesus is winning instead of them and that maybe the Pharisees actually do believe what He says and simply just don't want to admit it. They begin asking why this guy is a homeless peasant from Nazareth. Shouldn't He be like a King? 

They wanted to get and kill Him but they can't because Jesus is in control of the situation and has the authority. They cannot kill Jesus. If He dies, it is because He will willingly lay down His life. Some believe. The Pharisees send the Temple Guards to try to seize Jesus and He says to them (a reference to Ascension). They won't find Him because of where He's going back to. John refers to this in Revelation with the Dragon and warrior-child. The crowd takes Jesus real literally here, asking, "Is He going to hide?" They also talk about the Diaspora. Will He preach to Greek Jews too? They completely misunderstand. 


On the last day of the feast, Jesus cries out, prophesying of the Holy Spirit, who will show up at Pentecost. Jesus was not yet glorified at this time. Those with the Spirit will have a heart that flows rivers of living water, a way of saying with the Holy Spirit they will exhibit a life-giving life and it will affect people and even Creation. 

Glorified - Ascension. 

When Christ departs He leaves the Spirit who is in the Church. Christ is present with us now through the Spirit. 


Reaction is first, the crowd saying He is definitely THE prophet. Others say that He is THE Messiah. Some try to ask where Jesus was born. The Pharisees ask the guards why they haven't snatched Jesus and they answer that "no man ever spoke like this Man". The Pharisees then ask if they are deceived. Then ask if any of them believe in Jesus. Nicodemus responds and asks: "Does our Torah judge a man before it hears him and knows what he's doing?" 

According to the Law in Exodus 23 and Deuteronomy 1:15-17, you were to be given a hearing before you can be judged. 

They answer Nicodemus and ask if he is (Nicodemus) from Galilee also and then tell him to go look at Scripture (OT) and wrongly claim that no prophet has ever come from Galilee. Prophet Jonah came from Galilee, 3 miles from Nazareth (4 Kings 14:25). Then everyone left and went home. 

Note: The Temple Guards are commoners and recognize Jesus is special while the rulers and Pharisees don't. The Pharisees say the crowd believes Jesus is cursed but the truth is that they are just cursing themselves and putting themselves under God's condemnation. 



Gospel of John - Chapters 16-21 Notes

Chapter 16 16:1-4 [Scripture and Tradition go hand in hand and agree with one another saying the same thing] The Church will be persecuted. ...