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Sunday, April 28, 2024

Gospel of Luke - Chapters 17-24 Notes

Chapter 17


He says to the Apostles that they are going to sin. He realizes and accepts that they will sin against Him. It is not an excuse for sin but it is the reality. "Offend" here in Greek is scandalina (scandal), committing a stumbling block. Someone who causes little ones to fall and sin by sinning. Warning his disciples that they need to behave so they can lead and help these people. This is done to warn them so they do not become like, the current leaders - the Pharisees. 

Tells them that if their brother sins, rebuke them and if they repent, forgive them. Keep forgiving no matter what and no matter how much they sin and repent. This leads to a path of repentance and spiritual growth. 

The Apostles say to Jesus "Increase our faith". Jesus responds that even if you have a little faith you could do a lot like plant a tree in the ocean (something impossible without God). He tells them to be humble as a servant/slave when they do the impossible. Servant mentality.


A break. The new section begins. In the middle of Samaria and Galilee, in a village, there were ten leper men who were standing far off. They all ask for mercy from Jesus so He cleanses them. Jesus tells them to go see the priests to show that they are clean. This took faith. They are just asking for Him to cure them. They will have to go see the priest and as they go, they become cleansed. This takes faith because the priest could have them killed on sight if they are found unclean. They must go to the priest to be brought back into the community and out of exile. 

The only one that returns to thank Him is the Samaritan, a half-breed Jew. The only one to give thanks was a faithful Samaritan. The 9 Jews were healed too but they did not come back and say thank you. The Samaritan is someone who is supposed to worship God wrongly but even he realizes what God has given him and thanks Him whereas the other 9 Jews who supposedly worship rightly, do not. Illustrates to us yet again Israel's unbelief that will ultimately bring about salvation for the Gentile world and all mankind.


Jesus is asked by the Pharisees when the Kingdom of God will come. This is the hope of the Pharisees that an earthly Messiah and God will come to set things straight. They want the Messiah to set up rule as king and face Rome. They are again trying to set a trap here because they hate Jesus. 

Jesus responds "The Kingdom of God comes not with observation". The Kingdom (noun) of God is among/amidst you. Christ Himself is the Kingdom. 

We often think of this imagery as a literal castle or something of that sort but it is the uncreated, invisible kingdom that will one day unite heaven and earth. Christ is installing it right now in fact (in their time). He will do so through the Resurrection and begin to rule on earth and take it back from Satan, sin, and death. What Jesus gives is much bigger and better than what they want (an earthly king who defeats Rome). 

The days will come when I am gone and you will wish I was back. Things will get bad in their lifetime. You know better when someone claims they are the Messiah. In the 40s AD, Emperor Caligula, who declared he was god and had spoken to Thor, was killed by the Royal Gaurd. His entire family and his illegitimate children as well. He had given orders for the Jews to worship him as a god by ordering his statue be placed in the Holy of Holies. This planted the seeds for the Jewish Revolt but during Nero's reign, a new revolt began. Nero sent General Titus to Jerusalem and he destroyed the Temple eventually under the new Emperor Vespasian, his father, in 70 AD. The Christians then fled to Pella before this event happened. 73 AD Vespasian ordered Leontopolis' Jewish temple also destroyed in Egypt to halt a revolt then as well. 


When there's a lightning storm you don't have to guess; you know. When the 2nd Coming happens, you will know. 


Before this happens, I will be rejected by this genea (people). Preterism is obviously false here as genea is not to be taken this woodenly literal as they desire. 


He will depart and return and at the period of time that He does come, it will be like the days of Noah and Lot. Flood and Sodom and Gomorrah get referenced here. When He returns, people won't know but will do whatever they want and desire and it will be a time of great evil. Noah and Lot got out of evil like this, because they were both faithful to God. Righteous among His people. 


"In that day" (shifts back here). This is not the 2nd Coming here that is being referenced. This is not the Day I am returning (2nd Coming) because He has already said it isn't. Just flee. Here Jesus does reference 70 AD. 


That night, the whole family will be sleeping and one will be taken and the other left. This is not a secret rapture. There is no secret and there is no rapture. 

Where are they taken? Jesus says, where the body is, the corpse is and the vultures devour them. 70 AD and 115-125 AD are the context here. When these events happen, if you are alive then, flee. They will all be killed in these revolts. 

Chapter 18


Jesus tells the Disciples a parable. Men should always pray and not lose heart. There was a judge in a city who didn't fear God or men. A lady (widow) demanded justice for her adversary causing her injustice and he decides to avenge her so she will leave him alone. Then the Lord (Jesus) said: shall not the elect be avenged? They cry out day and night to God. He will take vengeance for His People. He was just talking about not being part of these Jewish insurretions with Rome because God will take care of Caligula, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Hadrian, Trajan, and so on. Why does He wait? God wants them to have a chance at repentance. When He returns will He find any faith? It is not just for Rome He does this. It is for all of us. Do we forgive? Do we right wrongs? Do we repent? 


He spoke this to some who trust only themselves (Pharisees). Remember, the Pharisees are still here this whole time. Jesus talks of a Pharisee and a tax collector. The tax collector is justified because he repented and humbled himself. The Pharisee is prideful and acts like he is exalted and perfect. The Pharisee will be the one who is judged versus the repentant tax collector who has worked with Rome. The Pharisee is unrepentant and thinks he is the elect of God but isn't. The tax collector is.


The disciples rebuke people bringing their babies to Jesus. Children were not seen as people back then. Jesus calls them to Him and accepts the children as people and tells the disciples not to forbid them and to be low and humble themselves like a child (low-status person). 


Self explanatory.


After this, the rich ruler leaves sorrowful. Peter says, see, we left and are in poverty following You. Jesus responds: Sacrificing for God's Kingdom will be rewarding.


Takes the Twelve aside to talk to them and tell them they will go to Jerusalem and He will be killed and raised from the dead. This is the road we are heading down. The disciples still don't get it until later. 


Then, they are in Jericho and there is a blind man begging on the road. The disciples tell him to be quiet but he refuses. They told him then that Jesus was coming by and so he cried out: "Son of David! Have mercy on me!". Jesus heals the man because of his faithfulness. Everyone sees this and begins praising God. 

Chapter 19


Jesus entered and passed through Jericho. There is a rich tax collector named Zaccheus. There is a large crowd and he is short so to see better he climbs atop a sycamore tree. This is noticed by Jesus and He tells him to come down and that they will be staying at his home. Zaccheus joyfully receives Jesus and people complain because Jesus is with a sinner. Zaccheus gives half of his goods to the poor and gives 4-fold to those that he has cheated in an act of repentance. He has repented and Jesus forgives Zaccheus, the CHIEF tax collector, a man who was formerly extorting fellow Jews through Rome for money. A modern example would be that a mob boss repents. 


As they heard this, Jesus said a parable because they thought the Kingdom was coming now. He gives a parable about a nobleman who leaves money and goes off to be a king. They reject him but he becomes the king anyway and comes back to see who has invested the money he left. 2 out of 3 of them did invest and one did not. The one who didn't give an excuse. He could have put it in a bank. The king gives 10 Midas to one of them and has people slain. They are expecting an earthly Messiah but instead, the Messiah will depart and return with a Kingdom. He will be rejected too and face judgment. When He goes, He will leave something behind and expect an investment from His servants when He returns. This is the Holy Spirit being referenced. What will we do now with this gift from God where He gives Himself? 


Jesus sends two disciples to borrow a colt for Him to ride into Jerusalem. He comes in and rides triumphantly. The disciples near Mt Olivet praise God and proclaim Him as King. The Pharisees freak out over this and tell Jesus to rebuke them. He responds in metaphor: Even if they were, the stones would cry.

The Pharisees freak out over this because the Romans could kill them over this. Plus, this is true anyways. He is the Messiah. 


Lament is given over Jerusalem's destruction. Jesus weeps. In 70 AD and the bar Kochba Rebellion, the Temple was destroyed and many Jewish rebels were killed while in bar Kochba Revolt, the entire city of Jerusalem was leveled and there would no longer be any chance for the Jews to come into the city for centuries after this except for one day where they are allowed to come in and mourn the Temple's falling date. 


Jesus drives out people who are buying and selling in the Temple. 


Jesus teaches daily and the chief priests and Pharisees, etc. want Him dead and destroyed. They can't make a move however because of the large amount of people. 

Chapter 20


A confrontation between Jesus and the Chief of the Pharisees/Pharisees begins. They ask who He thinks He is and by what and Who's authority He says what He says. Jesus responds by asking them a question about John the Baptist's baptism. Is it from heaven (God) or man? They answer back that they don't know because they can't really answer that so Jesus responds by telling them that He will then not answer them. As St. John the Baptist/Forerunner stood up to Herod, Jesus stood up to the Chief Priest. Jesus' authority is God. The chief priest's authority is Satan. 


God owns the land, not the chief priest. 

Jesus tells a parable about a man and his vineyard. The vinedressers (Pharisees) kill his messengers and then kill his son so he comes and destroys them and gives the land to the others. Jesus is the stone they reject. 


Pharisees then send spies to try and trick Jesus. They ask Him if they pay taxes to Ceasar or not and if it is lawful. It is Ceasar's coin so Jesus says to give to him what is his and give to God what is God's (which is not just the land they unlawfully possess but also everything in creation). They marvel at this because he also asks whose image Ceasar is made in? Ceasar is a man so he is made in the image of God. Ceasar belongs also to God. Everything and everyone does because He created all. We should be offering everything back to God and giving thanks.


Sadducees then try to trap Jesus. They deny the resurrection and Jesus skillfully uses only the Pentateuch to win His argument and owns them. The scribes even admit this loss.

The purpose of the Temple was destroyed by Christ at the Cross and 70 AD was for the rejection for that because the Jews still rejected the New Covenant. 


Christ asks "How can they say the Messiah is the Son of David? Quotes Psalm 109:1. David calls Him "Lord" so how is he also David's son? The answer is David calls Him Lord because the Messiah is God- incarnate, divine, and a man. 


Scribes are present so Christ says to beware of the scribes. 

Chapter 21


Continues. He sees the rich putting stuff in the treasury and sees a poor widow give two mites. The rich are showboating their wealth while this poor widow gives all she has to God without a show. Corruption is evident here.


Some speak of how nice the Temple is and looks so Jesus prophesies that the Temple will be destroyed. They ask when and what sign will there be? Jesus tells them people will claim to be the Messiah (60s and bar Kochba again) and not follow them. If you hear about war etc. don't fear this for the end will not come immediately. He makes a point of this so we must keep this in mind and distinguish between the events of 70 AD, bar Kochba, and the 2nd Coming. 

A break here. THEN. 

Many things will take place before the 2nd Coming so stay faithful for your patience and faithfulness will save your souls. These forces have no power/control over you. 


When Jerusalem is surrounded (by Rome), know that its destruction is near. God will use the Romans to enact His judgment, vengeance, and justice. He warns everyone to flee from this event. The only authority Rome has is what God gives them for this. 

"And Jerusalem will be trampled by Gentiles until the time of the Gentiles is filled". Jerusalem will be leveled by Rome in bar Kochba Revolt. Rome and Gentile's cup of iniquity will also be filled one day. Jerusalem's time is coming THEN, but the Romans, as all Gentiles will, also be held accountable and judged one day. 


There is going to be a time when it will end and He will return and then it will be a transition from this age to the next. 


They asked for a sign and this will be it. They will know He is the Messiah when His words come true in 70 AD and during the Bar Kochba Rebellion. This will be a confirmation of their faith. St. Luke uses genos; genea here as people and not 40 years. His people the Jews will not be destroyed by either of these events. His words will come to pass, however. 


Application here. Practically, you need to watch yourself and keep focus on God versus focus on the world. 

Day- He taught. Night - He stayed on Mount Olivet.

Chapter 22


The Feast of Unleavened Bread (Passover/Pascha). They were scared of the people so the Pharisees plot how to get away with killing Jesus. Satan possesses and enters Judas and he went to betray Jesus for money. 


The Day of Unleavened Bread came when the Passover must be killed. Jesus sends Peter and John to prepare Passover so they can eat it. The 10th Plague; the celebration of it. The people became a part of it. He is about to transform that event and that Passover meal into something New. Himself He shall offer as the Paschal Lamb. 

Where will we eat? Jesus tells them and they listen and prepare it in a guy's home. Jesus knows exactly what is unfolding. Exactly as He knew and said it would. 


This is the last time I will eat the Passover meal. [Jesus fulfills the Sabbath and Pascha through His death and resurrection]. The Eucharist is instituted here. Jesus broke bread, gave thanks, and said, "Do this in remembrance of Me". He is here setting this up as part of worship; taking the place of the Passover meal and sacrifices [Numbers 10:10 of sacrifices]. 

The Eucharist is the fulfillment of the OT rituals. The Eucharist is our central act of worship. It fulfills all of the sacrificial systems. Without the Eucharist, Christians who refuse to do the Eucharist are in apostasy and unbiblical. 


Jesus does not deny Judas communion. "This cup is the New Covenant in my blood, which is shed for you. Behold! The hand of My Betrayer is with Me"... 

The disciples question among themselves and each other who is going to betray Him. 


They dispute next over who is the greatest. They are not in any better place than Judas really because they will abandon Him too. Despite where they are currently, Jesus corrects them. Be servants like I (Jesus) am currently serving you. 


Tells them they will be His apostles and leaders. Even the authority of the apostles is centered around the Eucharist. Jesus is the King of the Kingdom. They will be the judges of the 12 Tribes of Israel. 


Jesus tells Simon Peter that Satan wants him and has asked for him but Jesus has prayed and interceded. So when Peter betrays Jesus and is tested and returns, Jesus tells him to strengthen his brothers. 


He reminds them of when He sent them with nothing and now says this is different. There are still things to prepare for. There is a goal and a purpose here in all this but they still don't understand. 


They go to Mount of Olives to sleep. He goes to pray and an angel strengthens Him. He knows He will die. He is God-Incarnate. St. Luke emphasises that Jesus is God but also Jesus is human and shares the same nature with us. Our nature is to live. Death was not originally part of the plan. Death is an enemy. Jesus does not dear it but it is foreign to Him. Death has no claim on Jesus because He is sinless. One human will hypostatically united with the Divine Will which takes precedence over the human will. So He is willingly making the sacrifice. 

"Sweat drops of blood" shows up in later versions of Luke 22:44 and is not found in the older texts. 


Judas betrays Jesus. He is arrested. The disciples try to fight and a servant of the Pharisees gets his ear cut off in the process but Jesus heals the man. Jesus tells the chief priests and elders that they are out here at night like demons. Here we have the leaders and they are out here ready to kill Him. He calls them to repentance even here. 


Peter follows and denies Jesus is His Lord 3x as Jesus predicted. Jesus is mocked and beaten. They blindfold Jesus and beat Him telling Him mockingly to prophesy and say who is hitting Him. They continue blaspheming.


It is day now and they hold a Sanhedrin mock council. Jesus answers them that yes, He is the Messiah. I am God the Son. And says I will ascend (v. 69) as well. The Ascension is referenced in verse 69.

Chapter 23


They take Jesus to Pilate, Governor of Judaea. They tell him that Jesus is claiming to be Messiah and King. Pilate asks him "Are you King of the Jews?" Jesus answers "You say so". The Pharisees begin lying about Jesus here too. Pilate says he finds no fault in this man. This seems odd but in the other gospels we know Pilate's wife warned him about a premonitious dream she'd had and he didn't take this seriously. These non-persona Jews have brought him a homeless peasant Galilean Jew who has declared He is the Messiah. The Pharisees begin getting even more fierce and say that He will stir up the people. 


Pilate found out Jesus was a Galilean so he sent Jesus to Herod, the ethnarch, who governs for him. Herod gets excited and questions Jesus who says nothing to Herod. Herod then beats Jesus too and sends him back to Pilate. That day Pilate and Herod became friends after Herod sent Jesus back. 


Herod and Pilate both find Jesus innocent. He decides because it is the feast that he will release prisoners and flog them (which could kill a person because the instrument used does tear pieces of your body off). They demand Barabbas to be freed instead of Jesus. Barabbas had actually revolted and murdered a Roman possibly. The Pharisees demand an unrighteous person go free while a righteous man is condemned. They demand Jesus be crucified. The mob is relentless enough that Pilate relents and lets Jesus be condemned and innocently executed. Everyone here is complicit in killing Jesus and working for Satan.


As they led Him away, Simon the Cyrenian was made to help carry Jesus' crucifix after they had just flogged Him. The people follow and some weep for Him but Jesus tells them to weep for themselves and their children because there will be a judgment on Jerusalem (70 and bar Kochba). 


Jesus is crucified on "the Skull" Calvary with two criminals. Jesus prays and forgives His murderers. They divide His garments and cast lots. The rulers sneer, soldiers mocked Him, and they put an inscription in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew saying: This is the King of the Jews - a titulus. 

Pilate is making a point to mock the Jews' messiah and make sure everyone knows not to cause trouble here by doing this. 


One criminal on the cross mocks Jesus while the other says to stop because we (them two) deserve this. This Jesus is innocent and he asks Jesus to forgive Him and seems to recognize Jesus is God and the Christ who is dying beside him. The criminal (Didisymus) entrusts his salvation in Christ and Jesus says "Truly, You will be with Me in Paradise". 


It is pitch black and still daytime. The sun was darkened and the veil was torn. God is leaving the Temple and this people. The veil being torn exposes that there is nothing there. God is not there. Jesus dies, breathing His last. The centurion then says, "He was a righteous man" -St. Longinus-

Some saw it - followers from a distance heard it said. 


Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin asks for the body of Jesus to bury Him. Pilate allows it. This is risky because Pilate could have had Him killed. Jesus is buried in the tomb. It is Friday and Passover begins before sunset Saturday. The women observed did Sabbath and on Sunday. Luke gives us good history and eyewitnesses here.

Chapter 24


The women come to the tomb. The stone is rolled away. There is not Jesus' body in there but they meet two men in shining garments (angels). They are afraid but are told He is Risen. They remind the women what Jesus said to them so they recall it and go tell the 11 disciples and the rest. The women listed are Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary mother of James, and the other women with them. The Apostles don't believe them but Peter runs to the tomb and sees He is gone. 


Two disciples were in a village called Emmaus that is 7 miles from Jerusalem [this place is mentioned only here and in 1 Maccabees and is for a reason]. St. Luke mentions this place because the Jews' picture of the messiah was Judas Maccabeaus as the prime example and representation of that. They were talking about all of this that had happened and as they are, these two guys see Jesus but don't recognize Him after His resurrection. 

If they were making this up, why would they include this detail? They wouldn't because it is too odd and that makes it more legitimate actually for a true eyewitness and testimony. Jesus talks to them and asks them a question about what they are talking about. St. Cleopas answers Him about Jesus. They tell Jesus that Jesus must have been a prophet and was unjustly killed. They say they were hoping He was the Messiah and did what Judas Maccabeaus did but he was executed. They also tell Jesus that they don't know where His body is and about angels. Jesus calls them foolish.

David suffered and entered his glory as King. David is the example in the OT. OT is full of examples and points to Jesus being the Messiah obviously. They get to Emmaus and Jesus says He'd like to go further. THey all eat together and Jesus breaks bread and gives it to them. Then it clicks that this is Him and He vanishes from their sight. They walk all day (7 miles) and it is dark so they get up to go back to Jerusalem and find and tell the 11 what happened. The Lord has appeared to Simon and the rest of the 11. Jesus reappears.


Jesus reappears and says "Peace to you". They freak out thinking that He is a ghost or a spirit. There are a lot of Greek ghost stories so it makes sense that they thought He was a spirit at first. Jesus shows that He is really human and has risen. He lets them touch Him and see His flesh and bones. Jesus also eats fish and honeycomb.


He enlightens them. All those things I told you happened were fulfilled. This was the plan. Now repentance and forgiveness of sins is to all nations (Gentiles too). He promises God the Holy Spirit to them who will grant them power. 


Ascension here. He leads them and blesses them and then is carried to Heaven. They worship Him, return to Jerusalem with joy, and praise Him in the Temple. The Temple is symbolically rededicated by the Apostles like the Jews did when Judas Maccabeaus retook Jerusalem. 

Even though God has left the Temple and predicts it will fall and be destroyed one day this does not mean that the religion of the Old Testament is gone and dead. Rather, the New Covenant is the fulfillment of it and now the Pharisees and etc. who reject Christ and don't repent will be cut off. 

Gospel of Luke - Chapters 11-16 Notes

Chapter 11


A transition takes place here in St. Luke. Jesus is praying and when He stops, the apostles ask to teach them to pray so He does and recites the Lord's Prayer. God as our Father is identified in "Our Father in heaven". "Thy/Your Kingdom come" shows us God's Kingdom is coming. The earthly-minded want it to be established. God's Kingdom however already exists in heaven and we pray it into existence on earth. Heaven and earth are promised one day to be united as one just as man and woman and God and mankind through the Incarnation become One. 

"Lead us not into temptation". Asking God to intercede for us. 

"Deliver us from the evil one" - from Satan. 


Even if this guy isn't your friend, your persistence will work. The context is that if you're persistent enough, people will often help so how much more so will God eventually answer and help you if you are persistent in your prayer to Him. He will give you what you need, not what you always want however. Jesus reminds the disciples here that they need Him.


Jesus casts out a demon and then some accuse Him of being possessed by Beezelbub, who is related to Baal, storm god of Canaan, a ruler of demons. They accuse Jesus of being possessed by a higher level demon who can tell other lower ranked demons to leave. They are also by calling Jesus Beezelbub, calling Jesus a piece of [expletive for poop] as Beezelbub is a made up name for Baal and means Lord of Dung-Flies. Just like Dagon means little fish. 


Other people sought Jesus and seek more signs from Him from heaven. They ask Him to show that He is from God. Jesus shows He is not a demoniac because their logic makes no sense. A devil could not drive out other demons out. Their own exorcists get it from God to cast out demons so Jesus asks if they are also demon-possessed. Obviously they aren't if they cast demons out. There's only one logical conclusion then. God casts out demons. Jesus is showing again that He is God Incarnate. 

If Jesus is stronger than Satan, then He overcomes Satan, sin, and death. Only God could do this. Jesus shows here He is about to strip Satan of His rule since Genesis 3 of humanity and earth. 

Jesus then continues His argument that if this man He just exorcised doesn't make changes toward God, he will be possessed again. We cannot be neutral. Then it happens that a woman yells, "Blessed is the womb that bore You, and the breasts which nursed You". Jesus responds to this blessing of Him and His Mother and says "More than that, blessed are those who hear the Word of God and keep it!"


Crowds gather and Jesus continues preaching. "This is an evil genos - a people group. He is talking about Israel and references Jonah and Ninevah. The sign of Jonah is the only sign that they'll see. Jesus compares Israel to the Assyrians/Ninevah. The Queen of Sheba is referenced here as well. She is referenced because they are not sure and she went thousands of miles to come and get information from King Solomon. Christ then shares a condemnation. Ninevah is better off than them because they repented while these apostate Israelites won't. 

 [take note: monolatrists - monolatry is what we would call Judaism and Christianity's belief in Yahweh being above the fallen angels who are worshipped as deities]. 


An example is used with a light and a lamp. Be the light, not the darkness. Bring light into your body, not darkness. Hear and do the Word.


A Pharisee asks Him to come to dinner with Him. Jesus doesn't wash His hands. The Pharisee freaks out over this so Jesus, knowing his thoughts, talks to him about how the Pharisees are so worried about the external and not the internal. IF you're clean on the outside but disgusting on the inside, you're in a bad spot. You need to be clean inside, then you wouldn't have to worry so much about the outside. He condemns the Pharisees with woes/curses. 

You Pharisees tithe and then pass by justice and the love of God. They focus on Torah but forget to be just and then forget God entirely in the process, missing the whole point of the Torah/Law. 

Jesus continues to blast them for their self righteousness. They are dead and they don't even realize it. Keep in mind that Jesus is in this Pharisees' home and is cursing them. The Pharisees' cronies are offended and tell Him so. Jesus curses the lawyers/experts too. They put rules on them and enforce them and then don't help anyone. They build little shrines to look great when their fathers are the ones who murdered the prophets and He says that they act just like them. 

Abel to Zechariah, genos - people again is used here. Zechariah is St. John the Baptist's father. St. John the Forerunner's father, who died when Herod murdered the children. The tradition the Pharisees follow here is actually that of Satan's. They have spent so long reading Torah and still do not get it. They attack Jesus and try to fight Him then afterwards. 

If it isn't obvious, this accusation of Jesus being Beezelbub's servant is mentioned and then here is contrasted by the Pharisees who are actually serving Satan. 

Chapter 12


While this happened, a mob showed up so Jesus tells the disciples about leavened bread. The uncleanliness of the Pharisees' yeast expands just like their hypocrisy. The Pharisees are fake. He talks then about judgment by God here too and says to fear God, not the people who might hurt, kill, or persecute you. Follow God. He won't forget the animals and won't forget you. He knows all. Even the number of hairs of your head. Someone might not confess Christ so Jesus says do not fear for I will reward your faithfulness and I won't reject or forget you, oh faithful servent. 

Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is what the Pharisees did when they said the spirit in Jesus was a demon, when in reality, it is the Holy Spirit and they are blaspheming God the Holy Spirit by calling God/Him Satan. 


Someone in the crowd tries to tell Jesus to get their brother to divide the inheritance with him. Jesus responds with "Why is this your concern? You just care about getting money that you didn't work for". Greed.

Jesus then tells a parable about a rich man who looks smart and successful and tries to tear down his grainyard and build a bigger one. God tells him that he is a fool because he is going to die tonight. The purpose of this parable is that we should focus on heavenly things, not earthly. You can be poor and blessed if you enter the Kingdom of God versus being earthly but rich and powerful and not enter because you focused on the earthly things. 

God feeds His creation and He will feed you. God will take care of you ultimately and you can trust Him. God wants to give us all His Kingdom. 


Continues with this discourse. He says not to be lazy and to be on guard and awaiting on the Master/Him. This wedding analogy is for a rich person. There is a weekly celebration and it is a family and friend and community event in context here. With that comes marriage, a party, and honeymoon essentially. 

While this rich man is gone, the servents must keep his estate going. If he gets back and they have been lazy he will be angry. The goal is to be busy and working. The servent that doesn't do so will find himself cursed. The Son of Man is coming at an hour that won't be expected. This is the 2nd Coming being referenced here. The 2nd Coming is also part of His plan - in the far future - not a determinate period of time. 

The "Son of Man is coming" is a phrase from Daniel. The Day of the Lord is in view here. A judgment and a visit from God where things will be sorted out. It is not going to be at the time that you expect it to be. The disciples do not get it and specifically fail to see that they are not going to be part of some earthly kingdom conquering Rome and Jerusalem. Peter even asks if it is him, them, or everyone who is the steward servant, the one servant in charge over servants. 

90% of the privately owned farmland was owned by the Pharisees and the Temple. The authorities did this, the ones who were supposed to be shepherding the people, and abused the people. They must have a sick confidence that Yahweh really is fake and isn't coming. This also applies to them and also the disciples because Jesus also doesn't want Peter and the disciples to be like these Jewish authorities obsessed with power. 


Jesus continues and says this isn't going to go like they all think. It will involve judgment. The "baptism" He refers to is His death. After His death and Resurrection, this will divide the Jewish people. It will be one side or the other, like a civil war basically for Judaism. Luke writing to Gentile converts is important here. They would have all experienced this hate and persecution and by following Christ also had to repudiate their former ways of life and would be and were persecuted for it. 

Jesus then says to the multitude of people that they are hypocrites because they cannot discern what time that they are in and what is going on. They are bringing judgment on themselves. 

When Christ visits, all the sin and injustice will be sorted out. Shouldn't you settle it before you ultimately have to face the judge? 

12:56 "this time" - the 1st Coming - Incarnation. 

Chapter 13


A story is told to Jesus about Pilate mingling blood with their sacrifices. Earlier Paschas there had been other "messiahs" and to keep order, as Governor of the Judaea Province, he had quashed these rebellions and crucified many to make a point to any wannabe rebels. These Galileans had been killed so Jesus asks them a philosophical question and asks: Do you suppose these guys were worse than any other Galilean? He answers them with a "no" and unless you repent, you will all likewise perish like they did. 

Christ mentions another event when the tower of Siloam fell and killed 18 people. Were they worse? No. He tells them to repent pointing to the Final Judgment that we all will go through. 


He then tells a parable about a man who plants a fig tree in his vineyard which grew no fruit. The man orders his keeper to chop it all down for it hasn't produced for 3 years. The keeper answers back to him to please let it be so he can try and fertilize it. If it doesn't produce fruit after this, then he agrees to cut it all down. This parable is about us but also the people of Israel. God planted them there to produce fruit. For years they have not produced fruit. The keeper is Christ. He gives everything, even His life for this tree/nation. If it produces no fruit after this, it can't be helped and must be chopped down (judgment). The fruit is not good deeds and rewards or merit; it is repentance that is the fruit. 

[Note: On the correct view of Scripture: The Holy Spirit is active and we know He dwells in the Orthodox Church. Christ says He has two witnesses: The Holy Spirit and the Apostles. The NT is the memories of the Apostles. Two witnesses will give identical testimonies. You cannot separate Scripture from Tradition because they are two witnesses. You cannot truly understand Scripture in its fullness without the Holy Spirit and the Holy Spirit is with the Church. The OT is about Christ ultimately.]


A break is done here. New section. A woman comes to Jesus on the Sabbath when He is teaching at a Synagogue. She has lived with a hunchback for 18 years so He heals her. The ruler of the synagogue gets mad and tells the crowd not to get healed on a Sabbath, meaning he believes it is a "work" being done. You have to have the heart of the Torah, not the letter. Christ brings this up that they are allowed to un-loose an animal to get water so why should He not loose woman and fellow Jew for that matter, from Satan and help her? They become ashamed and the multitude then rejoice. 


Jesus raises a question. What is the Kingdom of God like? It is like a mustard seed (tiny). It must "die" in the soil to be buried and life comes out of it, it then grows and if done correctly, it becomes a big tree (kingdom). Faith works this way. If cultivated, it becomes strong and has roots and produces offspring - more life. 


Transition. Someone asks "Is there an elite group? Are the saved few?" Jesus responds to: try and do it. Many will try and fail. Is the reason they fail because they didn't try long enough? No. They can't enter the door because it is closed but while it is open, go in now! These people make excuses, "we ate and drank with you!" - a communion and preaching reference is made here. 

The saints from all over the world will be in the Kingdom of God. Do not let it be you that is found outside like the Pharisees who claim they are saved and fine will be if they don't repent. 


The Pharisees try and scare Jesus off by telling Him that Herod wants to kill Him. Jesus tells them to go to Herod and tell him he's a fox and about all He has done. He references His death and resurrection. "Every prophet dies in Jerusalem". It is not Herod that will kill Me. It will be them, the Pharisees. God keeps sending messengers and now He sends Himself, out of love, and they will still murder Him like they did them. 

"How often I wanted to gather your children (the Jews). They weren't willing". The people chose Herod, Pharisees, and chief priests instead of God, just like in 1 and 2 Samuel when they demanded a king instead of God. 


This is about the events of 70 AD. They will have nothing after the Temple is destroyed. It is also about the bar Kochba Revolt in 115-132 AD when Herod lost Jerusalem and his kingdom. It is also about the Final Judgment as well here. 

Chapter 14


The Pharisees invite Jesus to eat bread on Sabbath and watch Him. A man there had dropsy, a skin disease, so Jesus asks them "is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath"? They keep silent and Jesus heals the man. Then He speaks more and asks "would you not help your animal out of a pit if it fell into it?" They could not and do not respond. This is a transition because they are silent. Jesus is pressing them and calling them here to repent and change and really try to understand the Torah. This is also an example of tough love from Christ for the Pharisees because He really does love them. He condemns them to try and bring them to repentance. He doesn't want them shut out of the Kingdom of God.

[Casual indifference is worse often than hate is because at least hate means that you care]

"He who knows good and doesn't do it, has sinned" - Apostle John. 


He tells a parable and notes how everyone is trying to find the best spot. Jesus says "When invited to a wedding do not sit right next to the groom because someone better may be (the best man) needing to be there. He is saying here to be humble and not exalt yourself. For whoever humbles themself will not be on their high horse and fall. If you go low, you will always rise. Be humble. Do not think so highly of yourself. 


Continues and say to the host, do not invite rich people in hopes that they will invite you and make you rich and exalt you. Instead, invite the outcasts that can't repay you. You will be blessed for it because God rewards those who won't be blessed in this life. "You shall be repaid at the resurrection of the just and the unjust" (Acts 24:15, 25; 1 Cor 15). 


Someone sits at the table with Jesus after Jesus says, "Blessed is he who will eat bread in God's Kingdom". This guy sort of gets it and wants to be one. Jesus responds continuing the parable talking about how a man gave a great supper, inviting many, and gathered everyone except people who make excuses. The servant brings the people who would want to eat this amazing meal. He first invites Jews and they reject it. Gentiles are invited and accept. They are ahead of the Pharisees and they are closed off when the gates are shut. 


Travels again to Jerusalem. A large group follows so He talks to them. To be His disciple, you will be hated. Your allegiance must be to Christ and not others. It costs a lot of sacrifices to be His follower. This group is large but will all run when Jesus is crucified. He says to count the cost and consider "are you really committed"? Christ makes many more examples like building a tower, one about a king and war, and salt staying salty. Be true and stay committed. 

If you are unwilling to be crucified (torture and a curse; also seen like we in modern day would see a noose on a hanging tree) you should turn back. 

Chapter 15


All the outcasts and sinners come to Jesus. The Pharisees and Scribes want the Messiah to drive out impurity and those they deem unworthy and evil so Jesus gives a lesson through parable about a lost sheep. You would go find your lost sheep and be happy if you found it. This is how we should treat anyone who has wandered off and found repentance. If the Pharisees were really good, godly, and righteous, they would have been overjoyed that a sinner repents, but they are not. 

Jesus makes the same point next with a lost coin example. The Pharisees think that they are valuable and Jesus shows them that He thinks everyone is, even sinners. 

15:11-31 [The Prodigal Son - The Lost Son]

This parable is next told. A man asks for his inheritance and gets it and leaves his father. The other son gets it too (inheritance). 

The son runs out of money and is in a famine and now works herding swine (in a Jewish community that is bad and unclean). He is working with Gentiles and is outside shepherding pigs and living with them. He is low status and has gone from rich to poor. 

The son believes he should just eat pig slop in his current condition. These illustrations Jesus uses are for the sinners and the tax collectors. 

The prodigal son goes back to his father to become a lowly servant because they are treated better than how he is being treated right now in his current state. Note that Jesus' problem with the Pharisees isn't that they hate sin. Sin makes humanity less than animals. It's the state of their heart towards sinners that makes them the problem. They are in sin too and in a lowly state.

The lost son comes to his senses; an illustration for repentance. The son had it all with his father and blew it all. He doesn't deserve anything but maybe by repenting and begging for mercy, he might be able to be a slave to his father. 

The father sees him and immediately takes him back. Christ did not wait to give mercy and is willing and would now for the Pharisees. The Pharisees thought that they would be the ones that could bring God here and the Messiah if they could just make Jerusalem pure for even one day. However, they were wrong. God meets us where we are at, and where they are at. The son is totally repentant and shows it. 

Instead of getting slave status or scolded, the Father has his servants get him the best robes and a ring and sandals for his feet. He gives him a ring as well which is a symbol of authority. They have a feast and he has a fat calf slaughtered and given for a feast. 

"My son was dead but is alive again" - we see echoes of Jacob and Joseph here. 

The son who was here the whole time shows up and learns what has gone on and learns his brother is back. Nothing the lost son does hurts his brother at all but harmed his father. The son is upset with the lost son and how the father is treating the lost son's return. 

[The son who stayed is like the Pharisees are acting when Jesus forgives sinners]

The son says "where's my party?" since he has been here this whole time while his brother left and squandered his inheritance on earthly pleasures, etc. 

The father replies with "you've been here with me this whole time". He got his full share of the inheritance as well and can use it any way he desires. His brother found repentance through dark times. 

God has gifted you, Pharisees, with gifts after gifts, and you hate that these worldy sinners repent and get back to the Father. They don't understand what they've received and so, are unhappy and jealous and envious for what the others have received. He tells this parable to the Pharisees.

Chapter 16


Continues but focuses on His disciples now. He tells them a story about a steward who was accused of cheating the rich man he worked for. The accusation turns out to be true. The steward hatches a plan and calls all his masters' debtors. He halves everyone's debt and takes off debts. This unbelieving man is shrewd. The disciples aren't. The Master finds out he has done this and commends him; is impressed. Jesus is not saying to be unjust here. The money doesn't belong to the steward. It is the Master's. This steward was a non-believer and was interested only in saving his own skin. 

The things we have belong to God so what are we going to do with it? Use it to our advantage and do good with it, even giving it up if need be.


No servant can serve two masters. This is St. Luke's passage on what to do if you are rich and a Christian. Use it and your influence to do good and spread the Kingdom and help people. Even the wicked don't squander their opportunities to do evil so you shouldn't either when it's to use it to do good. It is not wealth that is evil. It is serving the wealth and wasting your life when you could use it to serve God. 


When the Pharisees heard this, they get pissed because they like money. Jesus has called them out for serving money and worldly things instead of God. God knows in the end who we all are. The one with a bad reputation may be a saint and the one with a good one, the sinner. The law and prophets were until John. Since then, the Kingdom has been preached. It is easier for heaven and earth to pass before the Torah will fail. It is a qualification here being given. Jesus is not criticizing the Torah. He is critiquing those who interpret the Torah the way they are doing. 

We don't toss out the Torah. The Old Covenant is still here. St. Luke is doing a lot of shorthand in this passage and this is why it does not flow great in Greek nor in English here.

God doesn't care for divorce. 


Next is a parable about a rich man and Lazarus, a beggar. This is not a true story, it is a parable. Luke 10 does something similar as it starts out the same way. A rich guy is clothed in purple (expensive lifestyle) and fine linen. He is very wealthy and has plenty to spare. He feasts every day. There is a beggar meanwhile outside his home named Lazarus who has nothing. He is homeless and sick. The dogs lick his sores (this was medical back then as dog saliva was seen as a disinfectent). The rich man is not giving even crumbs while the wild animals have more compassion on Lazarus and lick him. Both men in the parable die. There is no direct communication but clearly the rich man did not care. An angel takes Lazarus to where Abraham and the righteous went to. The rich man is buried in the ground like an animal. The man is in Hades, the ground, and is in torment. These people in the parable are spirits in the story. 

The rich man sees Abraham and Lazarus and recognizes who they both are and that they are both in a good place and cries asking Fr. Abraham to have mercy on him and send Lazarus to come give him some water to cool his tongue for he is tormented in a flame. Their lives both we find continue in the trajectories they both lived in back then. 

[Recall that Jesus is still talking to the Pharisees about their love of money here]

In this next life, this rich man is begging for mercy and still is unrepentant. He doesn't ask Lazarus for help. He asks Abraham, someone he sees of value, to send Lazarus who he sees as lesser than. He does not see Lazarus as his peer or his equal but he does Abraham. This is still who he is, a moron and spiritually dead. Abraham responds, "you got what you wanted. You got riches on earth while Lazarus gets treasures in heaven now". 

The Pharisees will get rich now but they will sacrifice getting to be in the Kingdom of God. Abraham tells them they can't get there. The rich man had his chance to repent and have compassion and squandered all of it on his wealth and stupid stuff.

The rich man then begs Abraham to send Lazarus to his father's house to help spare his five brothers. "I didn't know!" Abraham responds with "God told you through Moses and the Torah. You chose your path and knew". There is no excuse. The rich man protests. They will know if someone raises from the dead surely! 

Abraham responds that they still won't listen. 

The Pharisees are the same way. They will not repent even if/when Jesus raises from the grave and they will face judgment for it. Here Jesus is giving a clear call for repentance because He does not want them to end up like the rich man. 

Saturday, April 27, 2024

Gospel of Luke - Chapters 5-10 Notes

Chapter 5


Lake of Gennesarat is the Sea of Galilee. Jesus sees two boats and gets into Simon's boat and begins to teach from there. The apostles have a great catch due to Jesus. Simon Peter we should note has a home and a boat so financially he is doing pretty well here. This huge catch that happens here is essentially a huge miracle and they have just made a lot of money that can help them out. It touches Simon Peter because he is dependent on this financially to make a living. The dead water we find here is teeming with life (fish). God gives life to the world in Genesis and this is supposed to be a reference to that here. Jesus commands nature here and Peter has picked up on it in some sense. Jesus next calls these four fishermen to be His disciples and they end up giving up on their livelihood here to follow Jesus. 


Jesus cleanses a leper (probably someone with Hason's Disease). The only way they would be allowed back into society would be for a leper to show the high priest that they were cured. Jesus merely cures him with a word. He is willing to cleanse the leper and simply says with authority: "Be Clean".

This leper risks a death sentence coming into society to see Jesus. Jesus does something seen as risky in society too by touching this leper to heal him. This man has probably not had someone touch him in many years, perhaps even decades of isolation. 

Jesus then goes off to pray.


Jesus heals a man who is paralyzed and tells him to get up and walk. Pharisees and scribes are listening to Him teach and they question Him. These people care about their friend's well being so much that they cut open the roof to get to Jesus and are rewarded for their faithfulness to Christ and their faithfulness that Jesus will be able to heal him. The Pharisees freak out over this because Jesus says "Your sins are forgiven" and they realize, theologically, according to the OT, that only God could do this. If Jesus is the one forgiving sin, then He is God. Jesus also knows their thoughts. He does this miracle to show them and make it clear that He is God and Messiah. He is making a point to show them and yet He calls Himself Son of Man or Son of Adam to also show He is a man. 


Jesus calls Levi/Matthew, a tax collector, and also a Roman collaborator. Levi/Matthew leaves his cushy job that pays him greatly, though it is through unethical means, to follow Jesus. St. Luke probably shows this to show that following Jesus may involve persecution, martyrdom, and giving up things in life like your job and your wealth. 


An issue over fasting comes up. Jesus talks about the bridegroom and references 4 Esdras. The destruction of the First Temple (by Babylon) is used metaphorically with a bride and a bridegroom. Jesus is using this to allude to His death here. Here they are also found celebrating the New Covenant. 

[By 110 AD the Pharisees (Reform Judaism) were fasting Saturday and Sunday while the Early Church added fasts to Wednesday and Friday for the death and resurrection of Christ]

Jesus talks about old and new wineskins. New wines need to be in a new wineskin and they can't work in the old otherwise it will tear. Jesus is telling them that they need to be new and stop drinking the old wine. Right now they are choosing the Old Covenant over the New Covenant. 

Chapter 6


Jesus is walking through a grainfield and the Pharisees see them taking food on the Sabbath. They question why His disciples are doing this and Jesus responds by pointing to 1 Samuel when David was on the run and they took the showbread in the Tabernacle. They broke the Law there to eat. David is King then and a prototype for the Messiah. Previously in Chapter 5, they had argued only God can forgive sin and Jesus did not argue because He is God. He says here that He is also the Law-Giver, and Lord of the Sabbath. Therefore, it is okay to do this because He is God. The Sabbath Law was made before the 10 Commandments were given. It was there in Genesis. Before Mosaic Law was the Sabbath Law.


Next Sabbath, He taught at a synagogue again: The scribes and Pharisees are back at it again and Jesus asks whether it is good to do good or evil on a Sabbath. The Pharisees don't respond so Jesus heals the man with the withered hand. In private, they then get angry and begin devising plots for revenge. 


Jesus calls His disciples, the 12. This includes Judas, the traitor. Jesus goes to pray atop a mountain and chooses them. Jesus will choose about 70/72 and 120 but this specific 12 Disciples? Why 12? Because the apostles will represent the Old Testament's Tribes of Israel. 


Crowds came to hear and see Him and be healed. Luke distinguishes again between sick and demon-possessed people. The Greco-Roman people weren't ignorant or primitives. They would likely consider us Americans to be primitive in our morality. These people have come from Jew and Gentile lands. Jesus has started with His own people but He is also here for all people. 


This is a sermon given: The Sermon on the Plain, not the Sermon on the Mountain. Jesus is on a level plane with them all here. Some bible critics try to argue Matthew and Luke contradict each other here in their gospel accounts but this is absurd. Jesus preaches in a different place here and Jesus also preaches more than one sermon to people and sometimes, as we all do, people repeat themselves and their messages. St. Luke records the Beatitudes and the Woes. This sermon is different from the Sermon on the Mount. Blessed are you poor. Blessed are you who hunger NOW. Blessed are you who weep NOW. Those who are oppressed and being screwed and taken advantage of by the wicked will get their rewards. 

Luke records curses. "Woe" is used here - a cuss word equivalent at that time. 


Those who prize their vices and this stuff now will be last. Will you long for the temporary things of this world and chase after them or will you chase after the eternal things and chase after God? Christ aims this at His disciples mostly but obviously, it applies to the general audience and ourselves. 


He is talking to the crowd but directly calls out the Pharisees. They cannot listen and refuse to listen to Him. We should all take this to heart not to try and take revenge but focus instead on love.

"You will be sons of the Most High" - You will be like Jesus the Son. He is the Image of the Father (eikon). Theosis is seen here. Through theosis, we who follow God will be like God. 


Jesus talks about the Last Judgment here. Do you want to stand condemned? No? Then be merciful to others like God wants to be with all of us. Jesus preaches here about hypocrisy. 


Continues on... Be a good tree and bear good fruit. Strive for a good reputation. Repentance is turning and fighting a disease and curing it. We can only start on this by building on a good foundation.

Chapter 7


When Jesus finishes preaching, He enters Capernaum. A centurion's servant is dying and sends Jewish elders to Him to come. They beg Him to because he has built them a synagogue and it is clear that this centurion is a god-fearer, a Gentile who believes in Yahweh. In this Gentile's home, these Jews were being in someone funding it. Paul and the Apostles later would use the houses like this as churches. This centurion is also a Roman soldier, well-off, and most Jews at this time would have counted him mostly as an enemy. 

[Note that polygamy until the 11th CE was practiced in Judaism. Christians were the ones to begin instituting monogamy and one marriage]

This Roman knew enough about their culture of cleanliness that he didn't go directly to Jesus as well but sent Jews to speak to Him. In places like Corinth, we know that Romans paid for Jewish synagogues and buildings to be built.

The goal of Roman life was excellence and magnificence, to be a high-profile person. They would therefore fund and help a building be built. There was no separation between church and state back then and they saw temples much in the same way that we see a library - as a part of the community. When the Christians eventually would not participate in this, the Roman people would think they were odd and believe they were anarchists who were trying to wreck and destroy the community. 

There was also a Roman fad at the time where they were very interested in Jews and Yahweh because Yahweh had no statuary and they found this odd. They are all fascinated about what is in the Temple and some even were aware that there was no Ark of the Covenant there any longer in the 2nd Temple so nothing was in there. This confounded Greco-Roman people and they believed that Jews practiced SOLA MENTES which means worship only in the mind. In other words, they thought it was a philosophical religion. 

A lot of St. Paul's earliest converts were god-fearing Gentiles. The Gentiles actually convert en masse because they don't have to do a lot of the things Jews do such as circumcision and when Christians live this way, this inevitably began to also hit Jewish synagogues' funding in the pocketbooks.

The centurion considers himself unworthy so he sends word that Christ doesn't have to come to his home. He says this out of pure respect because Jesus would have then entered an "unclean" home. Here is Jesus, who is essentially a homeless peasant and this Roman centurion shows Him the utmost respect here and acknowledges as well that Jesus has the authority to command diseases like he does Roman soldiers. It is very clear as well that the Centurion knows that Jesus is God and Messiah from this. He acknowledges that Jesus isn't like the OT prophets and is God Incarnate by His actions. The centurion's faithfulness heals his servant. This also shows us that Israel is faithless and doesn't know God while this Roman Gentile is faithful and knows who He is. 


The next day, Jesus goes to Nain. There is a funeral happening on the way out and we find a dead son and a widowed peasant woman here. The widowed woman has no rights whatsoever and her only son and child are dead. She can now only beg in a town full of poor peasants. When the Lord, Jesus saw her He had compassion on her and told the young man to rise saying, "Do not weep". The young man begins speaking and is now alive. [Compassion was associated with the spleen so here the Greek actually says that Christ spleened for her, a very human emotion].

Everyone fears Him and realizes that Jesus is a Great Prophet and says God has visited His people. This report goes throughout all of Judaea and the region. These Jews don't say that He is God Incarnate because they think He is only a prophet. This is deliberately done here by St. Luke to show again that the Gentile centurion's faith is superior.


John's disciples report these things to him. John asks if He is the Messiah or not. "Are you the Coming One or is there another?" 

We understand the OT prophets today but back then, they did not know. They were still piecing these prophecies together. Some sects of Judaism thought that there might even be two messiahs. Some of the Dead Sea Scrolls have two messiahs, one a priest and the other a king messiah. Some even said there would be a literal or figurative Elijah and then a Messiah. 

So John the Baptist here is asking Jesus which one He is and getting clarification from someone who he knows can clarify. That hour, Jesus cured many diseases, and injuries, and gave sight to the blind. Jesus then gives them a visual and tells John's disciples a passage from Isaiah. Jesus' answer is that He is the One that Isaiah spoke of. 

"Blessed is he who is not offended because of Me". He is explaining that He will not do as they expect Messiah will do. He talks about John the Baptist and then to the crowd: Clarifying that John the Baptist is more than just a prophet but is actually the prophesied Forerunner to the Messiah. John is Elijah, the one in the wild who paves the way for the Messiah. 

Refers to King Herod when he asks if they went to go to see a wimp. 

John is the one prophesied in Malachi. The Forerunner is the greatest OT prophet aside from Jesus Christ. The sinners find forgiveness while the Pharisees are pissed. 

[Note: Even Josephus, who decided that Rome was Messiah, said John the Baptist was a holy prophet and thought that 70 AD was a judgment for the unjust death of John]

"This generation" (genos) is used here. It refers to a people group, ethnicity, the men of this ethnicity? This is Jewish people.

John the Forerunner gave them bad news and you people rejected him. Now the Messiah comes with good news, forgiveness, healing, etc. and they say He is a drunk and reject Him too. They will not listen. 


"And then..." after that, next happened...

A Pharisee (Simon) asks Jesus to eat with him. A woman comes with an alabaster flask of oil and washes his feet with her tears. The centurion respected Jesus. This Pharisee doesn't and wants to check Him out for Himself and test Him. 

Simon the Pharisee judges this woman as evil and that Jesus lets her even touch His feet. 

Jesus then tells the Pharisee that He has been disrespected by him while the woman Simon calls a sinner is doing all she can to honor Him the best she can and knows how to. This Pharisee already rejected John the Baptist and he will reject Jesus. He is cutting himself off from God. This woman has not. 

Jesus gives a story to Simon the Pharisee about two debtors who owe 50 denari and 500 denari. He asks which debtor should get more love from if he forgives them. 

He speaks to the woman and Simon, as equals, and tells him how she is forgiven because she loves much. Simon was there to judge Jesus and wasn't going to change. Her sins are forgiven for she loved much and Jesus' point to Simon is that because you love so little you won't receive much forgiveness. Salvation is presented as repentance and living in love and better in love. Their life must be transformed. Those who sat at the table begin freaking out when Jesus forgives her of her sin because again they know only God can do this so who is Jesus? God Incarnate obviously. 

This story is obviously put here to juxtapose the Centurion's (Gentile nations) faithfulness and willingness to choose Yahweh and Simon the Pharisee's (Israel) faithlessness. 

Chapter 8


And it happened - it came to pass - a new section of St. Luke's gospel here. Jesus is proclaiming the Gospel. Luke also mentions women here.

Mary Magdeline - is not a prostitute but she is someone delivered by seven evil spirits - demons. There is no proof that she ever was one but there is proof that she biblically was demon-possessed. 

Joanna - wife of Chuza, a steward of King Herod and Susanna. These women had some money and helped fund Jesus' missions. St. Luke mentions them both likely because at this time they are still alive and can corroborate the evidence and the claims Luke makes. Mentioning women at this time was also a big deal to Greco-Roman peoples and would have been seen as scandalous because back then women had no rights and were seen in negative ways often. 


A big crowd comes and Jesus gives a parable here. He explains the parable to the apostles and it is self-explanatory. He tells all the disciples too (including the women). He tells this parable purposely to confuse some people so they have no excuse when they don't bother to listen or repent in the first place. Jesus quotes Isaiah here. The seed represents different people. 


He gives another example to people to take heed of how they hear what is said. In the same way, in a modern context, you would not put a flashlight under your bed, you would not waste your lamp oil. God will reveal all. Christ is here continuing the Parable of the Sower.


The crowd sees Jesus' family there and tells Him they are there desiring to see Him. His response here is not him disowning His family. People use this verse and take it out of context. 

"My mother and brothers are THESE who hear the word of God and do it". He is saying what makes them His family is THEY follow God. It is positive what Jesus says here and He has said this AFTER His parable of the Sower with an application. The idea is that YOU can be part of HIS FAMILY too if YOU follow God. There is no negative participles in the Greek here. 


Next, on a certain day, Jesus and the Apostles ride a boat and a storm takes place, and the boat takes water. Jesus is asleep and so they wake Him up and then Jesus commands the sea to calm. This shows us here that He is God Incarnate and also that He is stronger than Baal a storm deity/demon. 

Jonah was asleep too like this. Jonah knew Yahweh controlled the sea and storm. The sailors were pagan and ultimately prayed and trusted in their gods (demons) first. The disciples do not even bother to pray at all. They panic. This is why Jesus asks them, "Where is your faith"? Shows how frail we all are who claim to be faithful Christians. 


They sailed to the country of the Gadarenes - Gentile lands. When He lands there, a naked demoniac is there in the tombs. He has been living there with scavengers and unclean animals. Jesus and the demons then converse. The demon Legion knows who Jesus is. Contrast this with the disciples earlier. 

The Oracle of Delphi was possessed by Apollos. People often in Gentile lands regularly tried to be possessed by the demons. They would have festivals like that of the Baccheus festivals. In the modern day, we still see this done in Voodoo religion where they try to be possessed by the Loa. This demoniac probably partook in rituals and was then possessed by a demon. Jesus exorcised the demon and put the spirits in pigs. These spirits torment and destroy this man so Jesus sends them into pigs and they drown themselves because they can only torment and destroy.

The Gadarenes have Jesus depart. He ruined their pig business and saw the demoniac sane and just chilling out, without demons. Jesus literally only spoke and the demons left him. Jesus restores order. The Gentiles recognize Jesus is very powerful and they are afraid of Him so He leaves by boat. They probably were also questioning literally everything because of this and recognized they would have to change their entire life, culture, and religion if He stayed. The man wants to go with Jesus but He sends him back to his own people, back to their Gentile land, to tell them what God has done for him. 


Jesus returns and Jairus, a synagogue chief (meaning he paid for it and is the primary benefactor) asks for Jesus to help him as his 12-year-old daughter is dying. As Jesus heads there, a Jewish woman who has been bleeding for twelve years touches Jesus and is healed immediately. She confesses she touched Him and is unclean and has touched a Rabbi in the middle of a large crowd. Jesus praises her instead of condemning her and then goes to Jairus' daughter and raises her, reviving her from death. 

Chapter 9


Luke again here distinguishes demons and diseases. Jesus touches and fixes the natural and spiritual issues. The ancients had concepts and ideas about science and they were not primitives. Jesus gathers the Twelve and gives them authority over all demons and diseases, like a sheriff deputizing the deputy. Jesus can do this because He is God. He sends them off to heal and evangelize and has them take nothing for their journey. The Kingdom has come and is here currently. 

What would they be preaching? Not the same gospel in Acts. They proclaim that in Acts. They are proclaiming verbally, the Kingdom of God here and showing it is currently here and are showing it is hereby healing people. They are still unclear of how Jesus is establishing this Kingdom but here it is. Jesus sends them off around Galilee villages where they rely on God and people. 


They tell good news. If they accept it, keep it. If not, depart. When these people hear the Kingdom of God is here, they mostly think, "God is coming and will set things straight". Jesus doesn't do as expected though. Instead of a message of war, he sends out weak people with no armor! 

Herod the tetrarch hears this and freaks out because St. John the Forerunner had just been beheaded and some were telling him that John had risen from the dead. Herod wants to see Jesus and is worried and paranoid. This isn't hope; it is concern and dear because he wants to keep his power and position in society and this Jesus might screw that up and overthrow it all for him. Herod is put here in contrast to Jesus. Herod is a king and has military and political power and yet is afraid while Jesus has nothing, is a peasant, and has real power. 


The apostles return. Jesus and them go to a place of seclusion. The multitude follows and so the apostles say to send them off and Jesus responds "You give them something to eat". The apostles retort with a snarky response since they have five loaves and two fish and have to feed 5000 people (plus women and children). Jesus feeds them all. They were all sent out by themselves with nothing and God took care of all of them. The apostles don't get it but God would provide for them to feed these people. This also is here to remind us all of God feeding the Hebrews in the desert. Jesus blesses and breaks the bread. They even reported having leftovers. 


Jesus asks who the disciples think He is. He knows many have said He is Elijah or John the Baptist as one of the old prophets. Peter answers that He is "The Anointed One of God" - the Christos - Messiah. 


Jesus tells them not to say that He is Christ because it is not His time yet to suffer. Jesus tells them not to speak and then tells them how things will happen. He says He will suffer and be rejected and then be killed, and then be resurrected after three days. This is not how they expect the Messiah to do things. Be killed? Resurrect? Rejected? All of this is not the expectation. They had thought Jesus would be a warrior who sets all things straight. Christ does but it is through the Cross that He will do this. 


In context, take up your cross and follow Me... If you wish to follow you must die with Me. If you don't, you will lose your life (eternal life) (condemnation). What good is it if you are Ceasar and lose your soul? 

"There are some here who shall not taste death until they see the Kingdom of God". He has just said that we are all going to be defeated, be killed, but you will see the Kingdom of God? They think that they want a king that dominates all Gentiles but that is not it. David's kingdom may have been great but what good was it if you died a sinner? The problem is not the Gentiles, it is sin. Sin gets them exiled from Eden. It gets them exiled from God's presence. He calls them to repentance so they can begin the process of restoration. Jesus is dealing with sin and death, the real problem, and this is why He brings up the Resurrection and Last Judgment language here. 


Eight days. Transfiguration. They go to Mount Tabor and Jesus takes Peter, James, and John of Zebedee with Him. As He prays, He changes. Moses and Elijah appear and speak of His death in Jerusalem, a foretaste of the Resurrection. Moses' body had disappeared and Elijah was taken. They have glorified bodies here, pointing to the Resurrection. They were sleepy and this woke them all up. Peter says something goofy here. We then get a cloud here that comes and God talks (echoes of Exodus are shown here). They hear from God face-to-face. They kept quiet about all this until later.


They come down from Mount Tabor and a man in the multitude asks Jesus to heal his only child who is demon-possessed, and says that the apostles couldn't exorcise it. 

[The 1st Resurrection of Revelation - the resurrection (spiritual) between His 2nd Coming and the resurrection of the dead - The intermediate state right now saints are with the God of the Living awaiting the Resurrection of the dead and the 2nd Coming]

"Generation" [Gk. genos] [family group] O' faithless and perverse people! Reference to Moses when he finds idols. Reference to the OT and their wickedness. 


The crowd is amazed. Jesus heals more people. He says "Listen". He says He will be betrayed and they don't get it and are scared to ask and don't want to know either. 


The Twelve debate about who would be the greatest of them so Jesus takes a child to show they must be low like a slave to be greatest. 


Self explanatory. The man was working for Jesus and was not 2nd class. 


They enter a Samaritan (half-breed Jews) village and they reject Him. James and John get mad and they ask if Christ wants to destroy them. Jesus rebukes them and they go to another village. Jesus wants to save them too. He loves all people because they aren't our enemies. The devil is. Christ restores ALL ISRAEL. This includes Samaritans too. 


Someone says He will follow Christ. Christ's point is that there will be conflicts if you follow Jesus. Your life was as a Gentile going to change as you couldn't participate any longer in most of Greco-Roman life any longer. 

Chapter 10


Jesus sends out the 70. Two by two to go to each city. He almost tells the same to the Twelve that He did before. St. Luke makes a point that "the harvest is great. Labor is few". 

There are many able to take and accept Christ but not enough evangelicals. Jesus says the Last Judgment will be worse and make the day, that was for Sodom, look tolerable.

Jesus gives a woe to Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum. He says if Tyre and Sidon had seen Jesus they would have repented like Jonah with Ninevah. They get Jesus Himself and reject Him so they are to be held more accountable.

"He who hears Me, he who rejects you rejects Me". If you've heard from the 70, you've heard from Jesus Himself. 

The 70 are excited. They just told "demons" (false gods) what to do. The things/demons worshipped by Gentiles are under His authority. Jesus says "I saw Satan fall from heaven". He was there when He cast Satan from heaven. He has the authority because He is God Incarnate. 

He says "Don't be impressed because of this power. Be happy you are finding salvation and will find your name in the Book of Life". Jesus rejoices in the Spirit of God and thanks God for them. He loves the outcasts, the downtrodden, and the never-do-wells. The way we know who God is is through Jesus Christ, God the Son. Through Jesus, God the Son enters Creation. The Father, uncreated God. Apart from Christ, we don't know God.


Samaria is in between Jerusalem. They are despised by Jews as they are considered half-breeds. Samaria was just mad at Jesus in Chapter 9 for worshipping in Jerusalem instead of Samaria and at Mount Gemitrim. James and John wanted to destroy them earlier like Jonah wanted Ninevah to be destroyed. This is spiritually not a good space to be in. 

"Manner of spirit" - they did not understand who God is. They speak wrongly. For context, we should keep this in mind with anyone we perceive to be "the enemy". Christ is here to save these people. 

The apostles were going through or had just gone through and also, because they earlier wanted to smite Samaria, Jesus gives them this parable. 

A Pharisee scholar (lawyer) stands up and tries to test Jesus in an adversarial way with this question, "What shall I do to inherit eternal life?"

Jesus answers with a question, what is written in the Law? What is your reading of it? 

The lawyer responds with quotes from Deuteronomy 28. 

Jesus says he has answered correctly. 

The lawyer, wants to try and structure the argument to win and have Jesus agree with his argument, so he asks, "Who is my neighbor?" Who do I have to love? My literal neighbor? Jews? Even Romans? Jesus answers with the Great Samaritan parable story. 

A man from Jerusalem to Jericho is attacked by bandits and left for dead. A priest from Jerusalem sees him and walks off. According to the Torah, if he touches a nearly dead or dead man and he's bleeding out, he is unclean. Pharisees would say the priest is justified to walk away. Next, a Levite man finds him and he would be counted unclean too so he doesn't help him. 

A Samaritan, a half-breed the Jews considered unclean and heretical, has compassion and helps the man. The Samaritan also takes him to an inn, gives the innkeeper two denari, and says he'll pay back if need be to pay more. Jesus asks which one was more of a neighbor. 

The Lawyer responds: the one who showed Mercy. 

"Go and do likewise" - Jesus. We must love God and love ALL people and though there is Law, there is Mercy. The Law points to Mercy. You're not clean if you're being non-neighborly. 

The purpose of the Torah/Law was to clean yourself, not to follow it to a tee to the point of violating it by not loving another person. The Pharisees miss the point of the Law. It is the writing of the Torah vs. the spirit of the Torah argument. The whole purpose of the Torah is that it points to Jesus. 

Were the rules made so we couldn't help people? No. That is absurd. 


We are told in this, it is in Bethany (John's Gospel). Martha's house (slums of Jerusalem). They are poor and show hospitality to Jesus. Mary, her sister listens to Jesus. Disciple - student; one who "sat at one's feet" - an idiom for that.

Martha is trying to serve and feels like she's being screwed around a bit since her sister is seemingly doing nothing with this small group of people. She tells Jesus to tell her to help her serve so Jesus responds and tells her that she's doing good but is missing the point. Mary is His disciple and she should be one too and come listen to Him and hear Him. This is a big deal that He is saying this because Luke is writing to Greco-Roman Gentiles. Women were seen as so inferior in fact that unfortunately, rape was only seen as a crime because it was a crime against the man of the house. Gentiles reading St. Luke's Gospel would see women here as a disciple is very important because Luke is saying that Jesus sees women as equal to men so treat them as such. Following Christ inverts the social order of the 1st CE and even today. 

Gospel of Luke - Introduction - Chapters 1-4 Notes

St. Luke presents his gospel as a historical account written for a man named Theophilus. He also gives us the Acts of the Apostles as well. Luke-Acts is actually a 2-part book. As a physician, St Luke would have been strong in many of the arts. He is known for being the first iconographer. Back in the 1st CE, you would have made iconography and art with wax and we have what is claimed to be the icons he made, they are made of wax. Luke likely possesses a lot of the information he shares about Jesus' infancy because he directly gained that information from Mary, Mother of Christ herself. Luke's gospel is traditionally associated with an ox as a symbol of sacrifice and Luke focuses a lot on the priesthood of Jesus. If you read Luke you will see he reads in classical Koine Greek. He seems to have Gentile readers mostly in mind in his writings however this would also apply to the Greek-speaking Jews as well. 

Chapter 1


Theophilus, which means "lover of God" is a convert who wants the gospel told and has had St. Luke do this as a commission. St. Luke is a 2nd Generation Christian just like St. Mark is. 

"Those things which have been fulfilled among us" lends credibility to this writing being constructed after 70 AD. 


Begins in the days of Herod the Great, before his death and the tetrarchy formed. He begins with Zechariah, who is unusual for this time because he is supposed to legitimately be a High Priest while the Sadducees are not legitimate. Zechariah was not the High Priest but he was a liturgical part of the priesthood. He and his wife Elizabeth are righteous but have had no children yet. Zechariah is offering to Yahweh in the Temple when the angel of the Lord comes to him. There has been no presence of God at the altar because of the Exile being ongoing so this is why he is deeply troubled because this is obviously not a common occurrence taking place. The angel promises him and Elizabeth will have a child who will have the spirit and power of God over him like the prophet Elijah. Elijah is coming in 2nd Temple Judaism to prepare the way for the Messiah, the time of Restoration and Judgment. Things will begin to be made right and John the Baptist is part of this. John the Baptist will be the New, 2nd Elijah. He will be The Voice in the Wilderness who prepares and will be like a Nazarite.

Zechariah is baffled because he is old and has been told this child is also the 2nd Elijah. He asks for a sign and is given one: he is made mute until John is born. When Zechariah came out of the Temple he was speechless and couldn't see. His time to serve is up and he departs to his home. Elizabeth hides for 5 months because she is old and pregnant.


Mary meets Gabriel, an archangel, at Nazareth. She will give birth, as a Virgin, to Messiah. Joseph and Mary are both listed as descendants of King David. St. John the Baptist is a descendant of Aaron the High Priest. 

Mary - Miriam, on the side of Jesus, the Messiah of David's lineage. "One filled with grace" - "highly favored one". 

Mary isn't troubled by an angel showing up. She is troubled by the way Gabriel greets her. She shows great humility here. Mary was a dedicated woman to the Temple. A nun essentially in our period. She asks how she will be pregnant if she doesn't have sex with a man and Gabriel answers her that she will conceive by the Holy Spirit. 

Her asking "How can this be?" shows she never planned to have sexual relations. She planned to stay dedicated to God and the promise of Anna and Joachim, her parents. This should not surprise people because this practice of women being dedicated to God and keeping chaste was done even in the time of the Maccabees. She is told He will be the "Son of God". Gabriel also tells her that Elizabeth is pregnant too. Luke makes a point that she, Mary, actively signs off on the plan of God, and consents to it; a 14-year-old who is dedicated to the Temple accepts her role God has asked her to complete. Festal virgins when found pregnant could and would be stoned. In Nazareth, it was definitely doubted how Jesus was born. Mary is a woman and so at this period, she has no rights whatsoever. It is going to be a huge test of potential suffering and danger. 


Mary meets up with Elizabeth and they greet each other. Elizabeth asks why she has been granted to meet with the Mother of God, My Lord. Lord is a replacement for God. So she is quite literally saying: Mother of My God. Theotokos.

Elizabeth is filled with the Holy Spirit. She is speaking God's Word. 


Elizabeth says Mary is blessed. John in the womb is also a person here. Mary sings the Magnificat and exults the Lord. 

1:48 "From now on, all nations will call me blessed". All will be blessed through Abraham's descendants. His seed - Jesus. This song has a lot in common with the OT prophets. This child will fulfill all OT prophecies. 


The poor but faithful and oppressed are to be rescued from evil rulers both physical and spiritual. Mary remains with Zechariah and Elizabeth for 3 months more. 


John is born, and circumcised on the 8th Day. The neighbors marvel and rejoice and they think they will name him Zechariah but she says no, because Gabriel already said what he was to be named. Zechariah writes on a tablet, "His name is John". Then he can speak and praise God. This scares everyone and Judaea's community freaks out because they seem to all recognize that John is special and that God is with him. Luke has apparently talked to some of these people who witnessed John the Baptist and found it odd and amazing. 


Zechariah filled with Spirit, prophesies that the time of Redemption is taking place. God has visited them. He is in Mary's womb. Our humanity and salvation are already incarnated. Jesus is the Davidic King, the horn of salvation. All the way back from Genesis, this was the plan of God to overthrow all enemies of God. Remember that this letter is written to Theophilus and the entire Church, which here is largely Gentile. 


Now he speaks of John the Baptist. He is to be the Messenger who leads the people and prepares them for the Messiah. He is the Highest of prophets. When John baptizes, their sins are forgiven. This is important to remember here. There is real forgiveness even before Christ dies and is resurrected. God can forgive AT WILL. And always has been able to. 


The child, John, grew and became strong in spirit and was in the desert until the day of his manifestation of Israel. Tradition has that when Herod had all the children murdered Zechariah was murdered at the Temple trying to stop him. Elizabeth by tradition fled to the desert and died there where John stayed in the desert and was from then on raised by angels. Jesus refers to Zechariah's murder later in the Gospels when He says that from Abel to Zechariah were the prophets of God murdered. 

Chapter 2


Reign of Ceasar Augustus. He wanted taxes so he called for a census that happened as Syria was being governed by Quirinius. There is no record of Quirinius, however, we don't have evidence of most of the governors of that time either. We also until the 1960s did not have a verified record of Pontius Pilate beyond the Church Fathers. Being governor of a province was kind of like being a mayor of a city at that time. You are usually forgettable but it doesn't mean you didn't exist or that none of this happened. 

Joseph and Mary leave Galilee to be registered in Bethlehem. This fulfills Micah 5:1. Mary is with a child and visibly pregnant. Mary has Jesus, her firstborn Son, called Prototokos, meaning no child was born before Him. None after too. Tradition says that Mary was Joseph's second wife after his first wife had died. The first calf born is sacrificed and the first child is dedicated to God. The animal is sacrificed as a substitution for the child.


Nowhere in the Gospels does it say Joses or James are the sons of Mary. Jesus is her son. The manger is actually a cave where they keep animals. In the same area surrounding Bethlehem, there were migratory nomad shepherds who lived with their sheep basically. They see an angel and the angel tells them that a king who is the Messiah has been born. This angel has told a bunch of poor homeless shepherds who are powerless and have nothing really. This tells us that God is more interested in these people rather than the ones with power, the kings and the rulers. St. Luke was educated and would not have been part of the peasant class but he nonetheless shares often about how Jesus cares greatly for the poor. 

The angels proclaim "peace" which is significant because Rome declares Pax Romana. This peace however is not from the state declaring it. That has no real power nor claim to power at the end of the day and can't last. This peace from Yahweh is everlasting and He gives it to Christ, not Rome nor anyone else. 

God never declared war on mankind. Man declared war on God. God declares Peace through Christ, who forgave us. They went after the angels left and met Mary, Joseph, and Jesus, and praised and glorified Jesus. They told many people while Mary kept it all and pondered over all of it in her heart. Her own faith is strengthened by this all. 


After 8 days Jesus is circumcised. In Hebrew His name is Joshua. In Greek it is Yesu. In Latin, it is the most common usage of Jesus. 


The firstborn is dedicated to God. You sacrifice your first lamb or animal to God as a substitute. Mary and Joseph are dirt poor so they sacrifice a pair of turtledoves or two pigeons. Their dedicating Christ is them offering Jesus to God too which He is the Lamb of God (Genesis 22:8). 


Simeon, a wise and devout man of God, filled with Spirit is here. All around is corruption but there is still a remnant of good and godly believers. Simeon is one of these men. He has the Spirit of God so he is a prophet. God had told Simeon he would not die until he saw the Messiah. He sees Christ and knows who He is. He is righteous and sees Him and knows Him. Out of all these babies, He sees Him. Then sings for joy a psalm. Now depart - Nunc Dimittis. 


All people will be saved: Jew and Gentile are revealed the Light. 


This child is the fall and rise of many in Israel.


Simeon prophesies to Mary specifically, not Joseph. A sword will pierce through her soul as well as others. Anguish will come from what the Messiah will do. She will suffer as well as the Messiah. The first crucifixion prophecy is given here. Mary gets the privilege of birthing the Messiah but she also will have to experience hate, ostracization, poverty, and profound sufferings for it as well. She is a true saint who was loyal to her Son, Jesus Christ. 


Anna, a prophetess, daughter of Phanuel, of Asher's tribe. She was 104 years old living in the Temple, had been married for 7 years, and had been a widow for 84 years. This is what Mary would have likely done and returned to the Temple like this, had she not been chosen to be the Theotokos. Anna saw the Messiah and knew He had come. 


They return to Galilee and then to Nazareth. Jesus grew and became "strong in spirit". 


Jesus' whole family has gone to do Passover on their way back to their home and then they realize that He is missing. It took them three days to find Him and He is found in the Temple. He is 12 so Jesus is not yet an adult. He is found talking with the top rabbis and they are all astonished at how wise He is. They (Mary and Joseph) freak out and Jesus asks them "Why did you seek Me? Did you not know that I must be about My Father's business?" He is saying to them that this should have been the first place they should have looked because He is there for God and already at 12 aware of His purpose. Jesus is not being disrespectful either to His parents here. 


Mary kept all these things in her heart (she committed many things to memory and gave them to Luke). Jesus, Lord of the Universe, obeyed His parents and grew in wisdom and stature and favor with God and man. 

Chapter 3

In the Incarnation, Jesus is God and lives a TRUE HUMAN life perfectly. His ordinary life was a stumbling block for many. Still is for some. 


15th year of Tiberius Caesar. Pontius Pilate is Governor of Judaea. Herod is the tetrarch of Galilee, Phillip, and Lysania. Annas and Caiaphas were the high priests. Herod the Great has died since then. He has a precise history of Judaea here. 

John the Baptist, son of Zechariah is out in the wilderness preaching and prophesying a message of baptism of repentance. They are having sin forgiven by St. John the Baptist. He teaches Isaiah 40:3-5 (no punctuation... remember that when scripture is quoted it is a paraphrase of full quotes...). 

The prophecy is about Israel coming out of Exile from Babylon to Paradise and the New Covenant. This is significant because 2nd Temple Judaism still believed they were in Exile (and Reform Jews still do today). St. John the Baptist is leading and preparing the new covenant people for it and the Messiah, who is to end the Exile and begin the Restoration of Israel (with Gentiles) through the Church. 


John the Baptist tells the people to repent and to stop relying on their ancestry to save them. God's Wrath is coming (judgment). God will sort things out as the Exile ends so repent to be part of the Restoration. Some of Abraham's "children" will be cut down for they have bad fruit. 


John the Baptist tells them to make changes and transform for good to be God's child. He tells the people to give to the poor, tax collectors he calls thieves of the poor and to collect no more, tells the soldiers to go and do good to others and be content with their wages from the tax census. He's basically telling them all to quit their current jobs and find better and more ethical ways to do good. (Talks to temple guards). 

When asked if John is the Messiah, he answers them that he is not but is the Messenger who paves the way for Him Who is the Messiah, the Christ. We will all be judged for what we have done and who we have helped. 


The Messiah will separate good and evil. 


John preaches many exhortations and rebukes even Herod the Tetrarch who's been having relations with his brother Phillip's wife Herodias. He had divorced his wife to marry his brother's wife while Phillip was still alive. This is very sinful behavior. Herod has also put John into prison now at this time.


Jesus comes, is baptized, and while He prays, heaven opens. The Holy Spirit descends in bodily form and a voice from heaven says "You're My Son and I am pleased" -The Trinity is here-


Jesus begins His ministry at age 30. The genealogy is for Christ's credentials, not where He is from and who He is. Luke does the genealogy backward. His adopted father is Joseph, the son of __ (who goes on to share the lineage and goes all the way to Adam. Matthew only goes to Abraham in his. 

Matthew makes a point to show that Jesus is the 7th of 7's. St. Luke doesn't mention women's lineage but Matthew does. 

Luke is selective here for credential purposes. Basically from Zerubabbel and David to Abraham, to Noah, to Adam is to show He is the "seed" - The Messiah long promised. The seed of Abraham and of King David. He goes to Adam, son of God, to set up a parallel because Jesus is the New Adam and we are ALL descended from Adam, both Jew and Gentile. Jesus is related to everybody. 

In Adam, son of God, all die. In Christ, the New Adam, Son of God, all may live. 

Chapter 4


Jesus, filled with Holy Spirit is led by the Spirit to go into the wilderness for 40 days of temptation. The "wilderness" was seen as a place where evil spirits lived. On the Day of Atonement, 2 goats were used. One for sacrifice to Yahweh and one for the sin to go to the wilderness. 

The monastics used to be marveled at because to be out in the wilderness meant there must be some power or something special about the person. 

Luke tells us Jesus is human when he says he is hungry after 40 days. 


the devil - diabolos - evil spirit speaks to Jesus in the desert. Fallen beings who were cast down - demons. The wilderness is perfect for them to be and dwell in and this is also mentioned in the OT that this is where many do go and dwell in. 


Satan tempts Him. Satan knows He is God the Son very well. Jesus doesn't have to prove anything to Satan for the Father will provide. Jesus quotes the OT and Deuteronomy in response as well as other verses showing us that Christ relies on God the Father. 

The devil tempts Jesus like Adam and Eve were and He, the New Adam wins. Adam failed and they handed the world as king and queen to Satan, sin, and death. Satan right now has control and gives authority to whoever he desires. This means all kingdoms, including Rome, are under His control. He is the "prince" of this world. -warlord, strongman, petty dictator- 

After the Resurrection, however, Christ will have taken back the authority, and the Great Commission and the Acts will be Reclamation. Jesus is going to break slavery from Satan, sin, and death through the Cross. Satan knows the Bible too. He quotes against Jesus too. Satan departs after this "until an opportune time". The Devil is not finished trying to stop Christ. Having no sin means death has no claim over Jesus. He doesn't have to die but dies voluntarily to save us. 


Jesus returns with the power of the Holy Spirit to Galilee. He begins to teach in the synagogues. The Spirit is with Him constantly. 


At Nazareth Jesus reads and teaches Isaiah in the form of a codice of Isaiah from the Greek OT. This means Jesus is reading Koine Greek here. Not Hebrew. In Acts, we find Peter talks Greek too (though it is by Spirit he does this). 

Galilee was very mixed culturally and we keep finding Greek OT writings/fragments there in that area. Jesus says this verse in Isaiah is fulfilled. Is this not Joseph's son the people ask. They marvel at Him. Back then, they had synagogues for Sabbath and they preached a message, which Jesus does here. 


The Jews rejected reading the Greek OT texts after Christianity came in. Before Christ, you could read Hebrew or Greek by itself in the synagogue. The people are astonished because they know he is teaching from a Messianic passage. This was the beginning of that sermon. He goes and gives the rest of the sermon. He knows they have heard what He did in Capernaum and says He won't do it here for them. He begins to use examples of Elijah in pagan places and performing miracles for them, while Israel is basically faithless. HE uses Gentile examples. Only Naaman the Syrian, a Gentile was cleansed. He is comparing the Jews here to faithless Israel. Jews rejected Jesus and Gentiles understood Him. 

Everyone in the synagogue fills up with wrath and tries to throw Jesus off a cliff. Jesus gets away from them and "went His way". Satan's last temptation was to try and get to jump off a cliff and it almost happens here with the Jews. That's not a coincidence. 


He goes back to Capernaum and teaches on the Sabbaths. In the synagogue there is a demon possessed man here. Holy One of God that Jesus is, He commands the demon leave and the demon does. Jesus has authority over demons and only God could do this. 

These demons were seen as powerful. Many OT prophets sometimes could not even it was said deliver people from demons and it had to be God Who has authority greater than Satan to do it. Obviously Jesus has this because He is God Incarnate. 


Jesus has power over disease, a fever too. Not just spirits but the natural world as well. He heals St. Peter's mother-in-law (he's married). St. Luke makes a distinction between demons and diseases. 


The demons are saying that He is the Christ and God the Son. He is healing everyone and growing in popularity. Christ goes off to a deserted place and the people try to seek Him and keep Him with them and Christ tells them He must leave so He can preach the Kingdom of God to the other cities so he continues here preaching to Galilee. Capernaum it must be noted (Gentiles) here love Him while the Jewish populated cities and their people keep rejecting Him. 

Gospel of John - Chapters 16-21 Notes

Chapter 16 16:1-4 [Scripture and Tradition go hand in hand and agree with one another saying the same thing] The Church will be persecuted. ...