Note that Amos did not put this prophecy he spoke together. It was the disciples of the prophets. Amos is no exception here.
Amos starts the prophecy off by going after Damascus first (1.3-6).
Goes on Gaza. Gaza will perish. Their last 3 Philistine cities. Tyre is judged too. Tyre and Sidon; Pheonecian cities. (1.6-8).
Note: Ammon was on their side.
v.11 - Edom is next. Their neighbor they are currently at peace with.
Moab's judgment; neighbors too.
v.4-5 - Judah and Jerusalem next.
v. 6-16 Israel judged now.
v.7-8 - The ones mentioned doing evil are doing temple prostitution here.
What's listed is an issue for all of Israel and Judah. They are responsible. There will be a remnant but not a lot will be left. God is telling the nations to watch Israel be an example of a bad example. They were supposed to obey the Torah and keep it and then guide the surrounding nations to God (Gentile nations).
Wealthy woman of Samaria "heifers of Bashan, who are in the mountains of Samaria". They are to be dealt with much like Sodom and Gomorrah because they oppress the beggars and screw over the poor.
Mt. Rimmon is mentioned. This has also been called Hermon by some scholars. The demon mentioned in 2 Kings 5:18 is mentioned here and that demon is Baal. Hermon is Baal's mountain.
Amos 4:12-13 - A new king will come who they will call on: Messiah.
For most of Israel it is over. There is only a small remnant of faithful people to God. The judgment to come is because of the apostates and they could all repent and be like the remnant but choose instead not to.
Remnant will be left. When we die, it is also a personal day of the lord for us.
Agag, king of locusts is mentioned. This name may be familliar to others since it is also translated to Gog which is found also in Numbers 24.7. This vision is figurative language in some sense but from the spiritual realm it is surely very real. It is figurative for the fact that locusts will devour all the food and on this day of the Lord to come that is prophesied, the Israelites will starve due to their crops all being destroyed by Babylon and Assyria, which Gog represents. Gog is the enemies of God the faithful make and deal with along their way to salvation.
An adamantine wall that is unbreakable is mentioned and a man stands atop it. This is representative of God's judgment being unbreakable. There is no mercy to come for the unfaithful on the day of judgment. They have had every opportunity to repent and chose not to by their own volition.
Amaziah is mentioned. He is a false prophet of Bethel and accuses Hosea of treason though Amos is saying repentance is the way out of this mess.
7:14 - I was not a son of a prophet. I am not official. I was but a goat herder when God sent me. Amos then prophesies Amaziah is against God and Israel so he will die by Assyria's hand.
God set up a system to help Israel's peopole and they abused it.
8:9-10 - Day before Passover is referenced here. The Messiah going to the cross is also referenced here in a Messianic prophecy too.
The Lord is at the altar in this vision and says to strike the lid of the Ark of the Covenant. What this means is God will be coming out of the Holy of Holies to judge and then leave. The Temple in Jesus' time was torn (curtain). God had left the Temple before AD 70, not after. The Jews in Jesus' day believed that the presence of God had not returned to the Temple as of yet, the Pharisees especially and this is why they were heavily focused on purity so much.
An earthquake is prophesied to take place. The one prophesied in the beginning. Happens in 2 years from Amos' prophecy.
9:7-8 - Essentially God says here that: "I know you like to think you're special but you aren't. I love the Ethiopians and Caphtor and Aramaens too like Israel".
9:11-15 - Messianic reference too. The "tent of David" (not a temple). This is clearly Messianic language for Jesus. Essentially what is being said here by God is: "When I restore you, it will allow all nations to come and worship me. All nations will do so. Gentile nations for Yahweh." This is why Paul feels called to bring Jesus to Gentiles.
Restoration from Babylon/Assyria Exile. This gets in the beginning of being fulfilled by Jesus and the NT. Rabbinical Judaism has no answers for this stuff because they don't do this even today.