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Monday, December 28, 2020

Isaiah (LXX) Notes

Isaiah - Written in the 8th Century B.C. Isaiah is a prophet in Judah (Jeremiah will prophesy in 586 BC before and after the fall of Judah and Jerusalem while Ezekiel and Daniel will both prophesy during the captivity; Daniel in the Persian Empire too).

[Chapter 1] Isaiah has always been ONE book. Isaiah is said to have martyred and was sewed in two like a log. St. Paul gets this information from tradition, not his Old Testament and references it, similar to how we in the Church have works like the Protoevangelium of James which tells us about Mary and Christ's life. Just because it is not in the Bible does not make it false. 

God calls Isaiah. He spends at least 70 years prophesying: He does so during Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah's reigns. He prophesies against Judah and Jerusalem and says they are without heart and do fake worship and fake piety and God is sick of it. Judah and Samaria he compares to Sodom and Gomorrah. 

Life and death are before you. Choose life or else, the Lord says. 

Lord of Hosts: Lord of the Sabbath. Lord of Army. Master of Armies of Angels. 

God Isaiah shows us has an army and is letting the Assyrians do their things they do for now and a time. This is for judgments to be enacted. A remnant will be saved but the unrepentant will not make it. 

[Chapter 2]

Gentiles will worship Israel and there will be peace after this day of the Lord. The promise is that war is evil. The Messiah will convert Gentiles and he won't kill them.

A Final Judgment is prophesied. These Gentiles destroy their idols and worship God while the Israelites are acting like pagans.

[Chapter 3]

They will try to make someone king and they won't want it (3:1-8)

3:9-10 - Evil will try to get rid of the good. 

3:11 - "Woe" - damned. 

3:11-15 - This God identifies with the poor.

3:16-26 - The daughters of Jerusalem are whores and will be judged. Sons will die. Israel will be put down. 

[Chapter 4]

These women are unmarried prostitutes. They will want to be called this man's wife so they are not embarrassed. A remnant is mentioned. How is the remnant purified? Through the Day of the Lord, Christ's death and resurrection, the Holy Spirit and Pentacost is how and this was how it happened and was fulfilled. 

[Chapter 5]

Parable given here. God does work to help grapes grow and all he gets is thorns. He has tried and now asks what he will do with it. The answer is he will destroy it. The vineyard represents Israel. So many perish as a result of Assyria taking the unfaithful to Sheol (killing them) that it has to expand.

[Chapter 6]

King Uzziah has died at this time. Next vision begins. 

Imagery of the Divine Council is present here. 


The Lord is seated on a High Throne. Isaiah gets brought into God's perspective. Isaiah is at the Temple and sees beyond the Temple in this vision. What we do here on earth is connected to heaven. Don't let anyone else tell you otherwise. 

[The bishop used to sit behind the iconstasis becaues he represents Christ]

6:2 - Seraphims have 6 wings and 2 cover his eyes while 2 cover his privates and the other 2 allow him to fly. They are also on fire based on the description given of these beings. They cover themselves because they respect God and don't gaze directly at Him. They are powerful beings and yet there is a huge distance between them and God. They will not look God in the face. This makes it all the more courageous when one remembers that Moses asked to see God's essence once and God said no but allowed him to see His back (a theophany of the pre-Incarnate Son of God). 

6:3-4 - The building shakes. The Temple. Isaiah is terrified. It says often in translations that he says "I am unraveled" but this is cleaning up what he says in the Hebrew. He is really saying that he is screwed (there's another word honestly we could use but some people would be offended at me using the f word though that honestly would probably be the best word description to what Isaiah is experiencing and the best word to fit the translation).

6:5-13 - In God's Presence, he knows he is screwed and is a sinner. He worries that he will be obliterated so an angel goes to the altar and puts a coal on his mouth and cleanses Isaiah. This is a prefigurement of the Eucharist because God uses material things and imparts grace into them. The Eucharist is like a consuming fire that purifies us. Purified, God asks "who will go"? And Isaiah says "I will" knowing this will be a hard ordeal for him and will suck. 

[Chapter 7] 

The King of Israel attacks Jerusalem (This is often referred to as the Syro-Ephraimite War). 

The Ephraimites, an Israeli tribe/half-tribe, is descended from Joseph. Manasseh and Ephraim had, head-count-wise, the largest number of Israel's population. Ephraim and Israel are used interchangeably. 

"Syrians" were Aramites, "Aramaic" - the top language until Alexander the Great's reign.

Aram and Israel (Pekah) teamed up. Israel is attacking Israel. This is a problem and makes it obvious they're not following the Law. Judah is outnumbered and scared to fight so Isaiah goes out to Ahaz with Jashub, whose name means "remnant will be saved".

7:4-9 - Don't be scared of them. He prophesies that in 65 years, there won't be an Israel to Ahaz.

7:10-14 - They ask for a sign to know this is true. Ahaz says no and Isaiah says "do it" becaues he says to and God gives one. 

"Behold, a Virgin will conceive in the womb". A 12-14 year old virgin-girl.

The Assyrians will wipe them out. The sign is: a young woman will have a son and before maturity, they will be delivered from this seige (8th CE. BCE). The LXX (200 BC) translates it with parthenos, a virgin who has dedicated herself to be a virgin. We see festal virgins (nuns are modern equivalents today) in 1 Maccabees. The Theotokos (Ever-Virgins) did these things. The New Testament repurposes this prophecy. The prophecy starts with a remnant will be saved. This sign is being given NOW in Isaiah's time. It is an immediate sign that has a larger fulfillment with Christ. It is a sign being used a 2nd time. 

They are seeing the remnant being fulfilled too now in Matthew's gospel. Mary is a parthenos for God. Her whole life was and is dedicated to God. She is there devoted every single time in the Scriptures, even at the Crucifixion. This is why she is considered the greatest among all saints. 

Assyria and Egypt like insects will conquer Israel and Judah and etc. 

The remnant will be protected (7:25). 

[Chapter 8]

Prophetess: Isaiah's wife. She bears a son Marshallahazbag, which means "quick to plunder, quick to capture". This is publicly done where he gives him his name to the High Priest. 

The King of Assyria will conquer and be quick to plunder and quick to capture. 

8:6 - They did not choose the house of David to defend so when Assyria comes, they will conquer entirely. God also calls the Northern Kingdom Gentiles here. They fall to Assyria. Christ fulfills this all on a deeper level. 

Calls Jerusalem to repent because they have joined pagans (8:16-22). 

Judah will be tempted to join Egypt/Assyria and he says do not do it. Don't join the demons; Go to God (reference to Deuteronomy 32). God gave the Law.

8:19 - Necromancers are mentioned. Mediums. Famine and tribulation are to come since they choose the demons and a time of spiritual darkness is to come for those who do not trust in God. 

[Chapter 9]

Most copies have "drink first, do it quickly". Probably a scribal error (9:1). 

Territories of apostasy and people who walk in darkness, behold a great light! Still the same prophecy here. Something great will happen! (Micah tells us it will be in Galilee and Bethelehem). Starts in the worst part. Jesus is long-term, the Deliverance.

9:6-7 - Immediately, this prophecy is. For the New Testament, it is fully fulfilled in Christ.

9:8-21 - 1st Coming - Jesus judges then by the Cross in a Day of the Lord. Gentiles through this come into the Kingdom. Christ came not to bring peace however but a sword. Israel's got one last chance. They can accept or murder this Messiah. The 2nd time, He comes and deals with all of humanity. 

Isaiah mentions Greeks too which won't be until much later. God will hamdle their enemies for them if they are faithful. 

[Chapter 10]

They won't hide from God's judgment. 

10:5 - a turn occurs. Woe to Assyria. God will use them and their king. He is not good. He is lawless. He is prideful. God is going to use this tyrant however and woe to this king (10:5-34). 

When God is done using Assyria to judge Israel, he will deal with them as well. God is using them as a tool. 

Christ says similar to Pilate/Caesar. 

There will be a remnant of Israel. A child will lead them. In the Revelation this is Christ, the man-child.

10:20-34 - Discipline is coming to Israel.

Assyria will hit surrounding cities around Jerusalem and then them.

[Chapter 11]

"Rod will emerge from the root of Jesse". A ruler will come, a descendant of David. 

11:1-10 - King of David will judge Israel and also the ungodly.

11:11-16 - He will rule and be worshipped by all the Land. A new people of God will emerge when they come out of this Assyrian Exile. Enemy Gentiles will be friends. Isaiah gives us a 1st and 2nd Coming here. There is a Messiah who will judge Israel in a Day of the Lord. Then there is one who ends death and restores the universe to perfection. 

The Early Church taught that Christ could come back at any time. We do not know the day nor the hour. 

[You can't have a conversation with someone who interprets everything in a subjective manner]

11:15 - The Nile will dry up. Egypt's power will be overrun by God's rule. The Nile was seen as a god and God conquers this deity and as it dries up, what is set up is a highway for the coming new people of God. 

[Chapter 12]

All the nations worship God. Of note in Revelation, the enemies of Christ cannot get to Jesus so they go after His people but ultimately get conquered. 

[Chapter 13]

Chapters 1-12 were a vision. Now a shift occurs. A Day of the Lord for Babylon is prophesied. The stars they worship won't give them any help. 

13:17 - Medes will conquer Babylon. Medes (Medo-Persia), a tribal group (you could think of them like the Mongols) are mentioned. It takes 300 years down the line but Isaiah says this and it comes true. He is way in advance of time here but Babylon will and is prophesied to cease to exist. Wild animals and demons are to dwell there in desolation. The Persians do destroy Babylon by flooding it (517 BC). 300 BC Alexander the Great will be camped at its ruins. Note that all the gods of these Gentile nations are demons. They thought the false gods were demon spirits and their dead ancestors. When a nation ended, they considered the place unclean and haunted by the false gods/unclean spirits so demons haunt ruins. 

[Chapter 14]

Gentiles will be added to Israel. Return from Babylonian Exile is prophesied. Babylon falls.

14:1-8 - Return from Babylon with Gentiles. Persia too. They did not have peace with Ezra when he was leading them. A final restoration is prophesied and at play here in the texts. In Jesus' day, the Pharisees would not even go to Herod's temple most of the time because they considered it unclean since it was made by an Arab, not a true ethnic Jew.

The King of Babylon here is actually the spirit behind him, not the king himself that is discussed here. This is spiritual language here. 

11:12 - Light-bearer (Lucifer), Son of the Morning, Venus, star/angel, the spiritual chief of all nations at the moment. The spirit behind him is the antichrist spirit. This spirit is Satan, the accuser. Satan is the real king of Babylon. Napolean, Stalin, Pharoah, Rome, are all the antichrists and Satan is their king. Ezekiel it should be noted will do something similar with this also with Satan by ysing Tyre's king as an example.

The Lake of Fire is prepared for Satan, his devils, and his followers. 

Remnant language (14:28-32).

[Chapter 15]

Moab: At night, Chemosh, their moon god is the most powerful. They worship this god and they will be beaten and fall as their weak god Chemosh is.

15:7 - Arabians/Moab will fall if they do not repent.

[Chapter 16]

There is a promise to Moab. Their rulers will fall and the Messiah will be their Lord and ruler. Gentiles will serve Yahweh. Moab ceases to exist in history. 

[Chapter 17]

Damascus - Aramaeans - who teamed up to attack Judah. Northern Kingdom relied on the Syrians. They will all fall like Israel. Assyria destroys them. A remnant of Damascus however is prophesied to serve God.

[Chapter 18]

Ethiopia will be judged but a remnant will serve God. Isaiah uses wine-making as an illustration for this (reminder that we are still on the Syro-Ephraimite War).

[Chapter 19]

Continuation of "oracles" to various nations. Judah is tempted to ally with Egypt. This is to Egypt, not the necromancers. The Egyptians trust Ra and their Egyptian pantheon and their empire. They are going to fall apart. The Nile will fail; they worship the Nile. 

"How will you trust Egypt when they have to rely on Yahweh?" he asks and says essentially. 

Tanis and Memphis will fail. Egypt will have 5 cities join God. Gentile nations will worship God. 

God says do not trust them becaues God will strike them and then they will serve Him.

19:17 - is not about modern Israel. No Jewish temple to God either. Egypt did get converted to Christianity and v. 18 - Coptic language is made for Egyptian Orthodox Christians. It cannot be about Judaism because this altar cannot be using an altar as that would have to be at Jerusalem. This is clearly about the Church because when Messiah comes, all will be able to worship God anywhere (v. 20). 

v. 24 - Israel, Egypt, and Assyria will worship God.

[Chapter 20]

Sargon (a Tanathan) is mentioned. Isaiah goes naked and barefoor for 3 years. He represents Assyria beating Egypt and etc. St. Basil of Moscow went naked like Isaiah but in Moscow. Isaiah is the first fool for God really. St. Basil of Moscow dealt with Ivan the Terrible and valled him out for his ungodliness and called him for repentance. I mention him because he is a modern equivalent as an example of what Isaiah did as a prophet. 

[Chapter 21]

21:1-10 - Isaiah has a vision and a prophetic experience of this exile. Babylon will also fall though, 200 years after Isaiah. It must be noted that Isaiah did not put his book together. His prophecies were collected by his disciples and followers and listeners. 

21:11-17 - Edom will be judged and fall. 

[Chapter 22]

Now turns to Judah and includes them as one of the nations. Worthless temples they're going to (v.1-2). Not homes. They are being pagans. Because of this crap, God won't raise any leaders and they will be aimless and wanderers. Destruction is coming. Repent. They mock the prophets instead and party. 

22:15-25 - Shebna, treasurer of Israel. He has made a monument to himself. Isaiah condemns him. Eliakim will take his robe. He is an example of a person who doesn't give glory to God for his blessings God gave him. 

[Chapter 23]

Tyre is next. Linked with Sidon. At this point, Tyre is on an island and Alexander the Great will eventually conquer it. It is the capital of Phoenecia. Jezebel comes from here with her pagan religions. Those pagan religions keep coming from here; they are a trade empire on the Meditteranean coast. It will be a while for this to happen. 400 years actually. They start with Yam, god of the sea and part of the Baal cycle. Isaiah says to them "your gods will fall. Egypt will freak out". They will also go on to serve the Messiah (v. 16-18). Tyre will join Christianity as well. She actually becomes one of the first areas to worship Christ. 

[Chapter 24]

A summary is given on the entire world. 

24:15 - "islands of the sea" is mentioned. 

The world entirely will face God in judgment. Judgment comes but a remnant remains who will follow God. Jesus has this and does this at the Cross and at the 2nd Coming will do so for the whole world. 

24:21-23 - The hosts of heaven (unclean spirits) will be judged and those kings who serve Satan and demons. The walls will fall. They will be imprisoned. St. Peter will refer to this in 1 Peter. Christ preaches to those in prisons. Peter uses Tarturus. After many generations, Christ will reign from Zion. Isaiah uses Hades here. God's glory is prophesied to cover the entire earth (even the islands of the sea) (24:15). 

[Chapter 25]

All the nations will obey the Lord. It will be done by Israel. 

25:6-12 - Paul uses this referring to Christ. He has conquered death so he, Paul, must give this to the other nations. Modern Jews don't evangelize today. This prophecy is clearly about Christianity, not the modern state of Israel. Death is defeated. Christianity is not a new cult nor religion. It is really an interpretation of Judaism. 

Luther and Calvin even understood that Christianity had bishops... Hegel, a 19th Ce. German used evolution with everything. Even his take on Christianity and because of that stupid ideology, he tried and made it "simple" and reduced everything. The modern Protestant believes in evolution with the Church that it started out as simple. This is false though. It was a continuation of Judaism. In 110 AD we know for a fact that the rabbis expelled all Christians from synagogues. 

In Exile, the Jews gathered and formed synagogues and preached. Our Divine Liturgy is done almost in the same exact way that the Jews used to do their services. There has been very little changed. 

The 1st half of the Jewish liturgy is done exactly the same structurally as the Christian liturgy. We even did these on Saturdays and then on Sunday we would baptize Christians. Once expelled, the Christians just added a few more elements to the Divine Liturgy but it is essentially the same as Judaism with this. One of the big differences is that we do the Eucharist instead of the Jews' sacrifice of animals. 

[Chapter 26]

These "oracles against the nations" aren't really. They promise Messiah and remnants. Judah will have a strong city. It is not Jerusalem. It is the heavenly Jerusalem. It is their strong city. 

"Your arm is exalted but they don't know it". 

They're being judged but spiritually they're blind to it so when they realize it, they will be jealous becaues the Gentiles are getting God (the basis of Romans9 by Paul). By AD 70, Paul's brought the Gospel to most of the world and Gentiles are following God. 

26:14-15 - Refers to Egypt. Death of firstborn. In context, it is about Moses and Egypt. They couldn't simulate (Pharoah can't raise the dead). Deeper about Christ.

26:16-20 - Childbirth is painful and he compares it to judgment and salvation for the whole world. [Christ, resurrection]. Pharoah can't raise the dead. This Messiah can because he has the power.

Matthew 27 has this scene where the dead rose from the tombs but stayed there until the 3rd day when Christ rose so they would praise and declare that Christ has risen and the Day of the Lord (Judgment) had passed. Isaiah 26 shows us this. 

[Chapter 27]

God will slay the dragon / serpent (refer to Gen 3). The same is found in Revelation. Primordial evil = Satan and his forces.

This new creation will proceed without evil in its way to screw it up.

This city burning is the city of man (27:2-4). 

27:6-9 - He will take away their sins and purify them.

27:11-13 - This day all will worship Yahweh. New Jerusalem. 

[Chapter 28]

Ephraim - Northern Kingdom of Israel. Cursed are the hired workers. The kings of Israel/Ephraim get dissed here. 

The wickedness is so bad that it is tainting the earth and needs to be cleansed. These people have made a covenant with death. Their prophets/kings are all liars claiming peace while the Word of God says otherwise. 

God tells them in v. 16-29 that they will not be judged forever for ther e will be a remnant. Their covenant with death will be wiped out when he installs the cornerstone (that is Christ) and they trust Him. He is the foundation, the Messiah. Hope in wickedness and you will fall. Fufillment for a lot of Chapter 28 happens 700 years later after Isaiah through Christ. 

[Chapter 29]

Ariel - one of Jerusalem's enemies. David fights her. She represents God's enemies. Riches and wealth are like a dream. The enemies of God will fail vs Him and His Holy Mountain and people. 

29:12 - They can't understand what is written because they are far from God. They are worshipping but their heart is not there. 

29:14-24 - Behold! Old people will be removed. A new people are prophesied. He will put this idiocracy and foolishness to an end. They will be opposite. He will restore Jacob's people (as a New Israel). God wants us to KNOW HIM, not know of Him.

[Chapter 30]

Middle of 700s BC. The Northern Kingdom is screwed. There is a temptation to join an alliance with Egypt to protect themselves from Assyria. The Northern Kingdom are trying to side with Assyria while Judah tries to side with Egypt. The temptation to go back to Egypt and Pharoah is there. God doesn't hate Egypt. The problem is that they are not consulting God about this (Israel). God used Egypt actually a few times and did once before with Joseph so he doesn't hate Egypt. 

30:6-18 - They are rejecting prophets and want lies instead. 

30:19-26 - In Exile they will realize they were being sinners. Part of their salvation comes through the Exile. Israel gets discipline during it. Usually with Gentile nations God lets the cup of wrath fill to the brim like he did with Sodom and Gomorrah. Their idols will be as dung and they will throw them away.

Assyria will be defeated (v. 30-33). After a restoration is the Final Judgment. 

[Chapter 31]

Egypt will not help them. Pharoah is not a god. Do not put trust in them. Written during Syro-Ephraim War. Assyrians will be overthrown. By Babylon. This is a spiritual Assyria being discussed here and it is layered. Only God can stand to spiritual enemies. Despite all the warnings they choose Egypt. 

[Jesus comes not to beat Rome but to save it]. Just like Jesus, God here with Isaiah tries to get them to see the bigger picture.

[Chapter 32]

Egypt and Assyria spiritually are things we shouldn't trust in or fear. 

Messianic prophecy. 

32:2 - Jesus is the Living Water. 

32:4-6 - We choose leaders (fools) and God will lead (wise)

32:9-20 - The Exile (the Pharisees didn't believe they were out of it. Herod's Temple was not the good thing; they needed Messiah). 

[Chapter 33]

Messsianic prophecy. New Jerusalem. Old kingdoms are gone. This is the Jerusalem of Rev 21. No Temple. A tabernacle is what is written. The Tabernacle is Jesus Christ. John says: The Word became flesh and tabernacles among us.

[Chapter 34]

Judgment on all nations.

All the accomplishments of men (city-builders) will be reduced to desolation. All the animals get their lots of land desolation. There's a bit of parody going on here that the animals inherit the lands. 

[Chapter 35]

Messiah. This is what John the Forerunner gets referenced with. This way is holy and the redeemed will walk it. People made holy who were once sinful. 

[Chapter 36]

In the 14th year of Hezekiah (743 BC).

Sennacherib King of Assyria invades Judah. They make the Nazis look kind in comparison. It says "they have demanded surrender". Hezekiah says no and that they will trust Egypt... not good... The general Rabshakeh calls them a fool for not surrendering. 

They say to speak Aramaic so Israel's gaurds won't hear their effective smack too. The leader of Israel is weak. 

Rabshakeh makes Hezekiah look so dumb in front of the Israelites and says in Hebrew "Your king is an idiot". 

[Chapter 37]

Hezekiah consults wiht Isaiah. He wants to repent. He goes to God's messenger for help and says we deserve what is fixing to happen (37:9-20). He truly is repentant here. 

Ethiopia attacks Assyria so Rabshakah is called back. They are at the Temple (Hezekiah and Isaiah).

37:21-36 - Isaiah makes a response to Sennacherub that Israeli's little girls laugh at him. He says God knows everything about him and gives an epic trash talking in this. 

37:36-38 - 185,000 Assyrians around Jerusalem died by St. Michael the Archangel. Sennacherub was assassinated in Ninevah and Esar-haddon ruled.

[Chapter 38]

Hezekiah gets ill and then is cured because of his repentance he is added 15 years to his life. The Assyrians in history it is shown that they did lay seige to Jerusalem and then randomly left. This is documented. They probably got embarassed by their losing 185,000 people. History doesn't want us to believe that Israel survived this seige but what's coming out lately is that they did for a time survive this. 

[Chapter 39]

Merodack, son of Baladan, Babylon king heard he was sick. Hezekiah showed him all his treasures. Isaiah then tells him some bad news: Hezekiah's sons will be made eunuchs. Hezekiah trusts in God here though saying "the judgment is good (for I put trust in the Babylonians vs God). "What you've said is good".

[Chapter 40]

Isaiah's followers collected his prophecies. Probably was two or three books combined. All written close to the same time. 

Chapter 42 beginsthe servant songs. This is 4 songs and poems that are prophetic about the suffering servant. 

Some claim this is about Israel but this makes no sense. Dispensationalist often do this as do some followers of Judaism at times who take their faith more serious. 

We need to remember that Judaism is in heresy today. The Talmud itself takes credit for executing Jesus and says he is a phony. This is obviously false. 

40:1-8 - Mark quotes Isaiah 40:1-8. End of the Exile is happening when Mark quotes it. When Ezra-Nehemiah happen, this didn't happen at all. 

Did all flesh during Ezra-Nehemiah see the glory of God? No. The Exile did not end there. Herod's Temple was even seen as illegitimate and the Saducees as an illegitimate priesthood. 

Christ goes to the Jordan first and in Mark, Jesus ends the Exile (Gen 3) from Eden, Babylon, and Assyria. 

The priest in the wilderness (40:1-5). 

When the NT says "As it is written," they expect you to read the whole book they reference because they do not have chapter/verses yet. That is an innovation with scripture.

John the Forerunner proclaims that Judgement is Coming. The Messiah is also coming. That is Christ coming out. 

[Chapter 41]

41:1-20 - He will judge the whole world, "islands" too. Manifest to all the world. Remnant (v. 14) will be strengthened and manifest himself through all nations. Paul discusses this in Romans. The Jews never were restored. Christ plants seeds with this remnant. His Gospel restores the remnant, brings Gentiles in with this judgment. 

41:21-29 - The idols are futile to help the ungodly when the judgment happens (v.25). End of idolatry for the world is prophesied here. 

[Chapter 42]

Here is My Servant. He will bring judgment and justice. I'll give my Spirit upon Him. He will bring judgment. He has never given his entire spirit on everyone but here however, he prophesies that he will do so. This person does this for everyone. This cannot be Israel at all and is not a nation, especially when all 10 nations just got wiped out. Only Christ fulfills this prophetic word. The Father places the Holy Spirit on Christ literally fulfilling it. Pentacost also fulfills this. 

42:3-4 The Gentiles will hope in this Messiah's name. Real victory is when you make your enemy your friend. 

42:8 - The Messiah is God. Christ is God manifest so we won't need an idol.

42:5-9 - Messiah will free people from sin. Everyone. God is talking to his servant. Covenant to the Jews, life to the Gentiles. New Covenant is promised that will supercede the Old Covenant. 

42:9-25 - Israel is blind and deaf. The servant/Messiah is contrasted to the current Israel of Isaiah's time. He is silent and peaceful but won't always be that way. 1st and 2nd Coming language is here. 

[Chapter 43]

God made a promise and will not forget it. He will redeem them. His people. 

43:7 - Christ fulfills this. Two witnesses are Christ and His people here.

43:8-28 - Their gods are still weak compared to Yahweh. They are nothing to Yahweh. 

43:14-28 - He is your King. He will deal with Babylon later like he did with Egypt. He is doing a new thing. He will forgive them but they will have to be disciplined. John the Baptist starts this when he begins baptizing and forgiving people of sin during his ministry. Preparing the people for the new way that the Messiah will lead them through. 

[Chapter 44]

44:5 - Two people say "I'm of Israel". Jew and Gentile. 

Pentacost this finds fulfillment because all people get the Spirit of God on them. This started with John the Baptist (Forerunner). 33AD fulfillment is found here (44:1-5).

44:6-20 - Idolatry. Demon possession. It needs them to function and have power while He, God doesn't. 

44:21-28 - God gave trees and creation to help us and we use it for the wrong reasons and if we don't follow God, we as humans started worshipping them. 

44:28 - Cyrus is mentioned. The name Cyrus occurs. Isaiah (710 BC). 

586 BC - Babylon.

565 BC - some horsemen tribes get together with Medes and become Persia. 

522 BC - they conquer Babylon as the 1st Persian Empire and Cyrus is their emperor. He lets the Jews return to Jerusalem because they showed him Isaiah's mention of him. 

200 years before the emperor, Isaiah named him and this helped rebuild Jerusalem. 

[Chapter 45]

Cyrus typologizes Jesus. He picks Cyrus to defeat Babylon. Uses him to deliver them. He wrote this to show Cyrus that he is a legitimate god. He tells Cyrus that he is the One True God, already predicts that they will follow after a false god: This will be Zoroastrianism. Alexander the Great would conquer Persia and spread his dualist religion of Zoroastrianism. This is why Isaiah says "I am He who made light and darkness". It was not Ahumamasta and his shade that did it. It was Yahweh. 

Xerxes is Cyrus' great-grandson. Alexander conquers the 1st Persia. 2nd Persia revives and is led by Xerxes and a reconstructed Zoroastrianism is revived. Then in the 7th Ce. Muslims will ultimately wipe them mostly all out. This Gentile Cyrus will deliver Israel. 

[Cyrus will dominate these people. This is obviously not as the dispensationalists and Zionists claim sometimes that Gentiles will be slaves to Jews or the modern state of Israel. Zionism is heresy. Cyrus is the example. When you see him, you will know his prophecy is true.

[Chapter 46]

"Bel has fallen. Nabo/Nebo is shattered!" Thier idols have fallen. Baal the Babylonian god, storm god and Dagon the fish-god have fallen. Babylon represented the pinnacle of society. One of the greatest of cities. Hiuman societies have many accomplishments and Babylon represents that great earthly city. Even when it is in ruins, Babylon is still seen in a great light for its ancient greatness. 

[Chapter 47]

Babylon was merciless and now they would be dealt with. Calls her basically a prostitute. They thought they were so great and would rule forever. They are much like Cain's city symbolically. The king thought he was a god. Cyrus took Babylon down pretty easily though. 

[Chapter 48]

Goes back to Israel who says His Name but doesn't really follow Him. They are so stubborn and keep forgetting their faith. Kind of like celebrating Christians and forgetting God.

48:20 - Out of Babylon, they are freed.

[Chapter 49]

God will deliver them from Babylon but this is happening still. God will help the godly (48:20-22). This servant isn't Israel. He will be leading Israel. This servant the Messiah will not be a military leader. He will be living a life of seeming futility but bring about their salvation (49:1-5). Cyrus nor Israel fits the Messiah's descriptions. Only Jesus does OR alternatively, a future Messiah that in some Jews' defense, they are waiting for one to still come. Cyrus also never converted the Persians into a new covenant. Obviously Jesus however did. 

49:8 - Paul will refer to this, to say Gentiles are coming and salvation is now.

49:16 - "I've punctured/engraved you in the palm of my hands". Jesus obviously fulfills this at the Cross.

49:22-26 - Gentiles will with Jews worship this Messiah. Jesus must be God to be worshipped. 

49:24 - Can anyone bind Satan / a giant and loot them? The day will come that the Messiah will take back from the demons and he will deliver the people the demons claim are theirs'. His Descent to Hades will do this and end all of Hades' claim to those who are Yahweh's. 

[Chapter 50]

Analogy is used where he asks if he sold her or divorced Israel. Who did He owe? He didn't decide to do this. They divorced Him and made this debt and chose to enslave themselves to Babylon and the world and be exiled. "I called out to you and hearn nothing" (refers to Eden and the Garden here some too). 

The Servant is rejected (v. 4) and he is righteous but punished. Whipped/flogged but he accepts it because He is righteous. Jesus fits this description obviously. Cyrus/Israel doesn't fit this at all. 

[Chapter 51]

710 BC. years before John, Jesus, and the Church are born. He gives short term and long term prophecies here. Even naming Cyrus 200 years before he was born. References are made to Abraham and Sarah (2000 BC) and then 1240 years later or so, God has kept the promises and will keep the promises. We need to see the bigger picture sometimes and that's what the prophets do. 

God will restore the earth to what it is supposed to be (51:6). The Gentiles come to believe as well as the Jews in Yahweh. When Paul quotes this he says "Brothers, we are in the last days". The last days covers a long period of time. From Paul's day til now we are in the Last Days. 

51:7-16 - All of Adam's descendants will find salvation in God, Jesus. Talks about the Exile from Creation (Eden) and bringing everyone back. Their current Babylonian Exile is a microcosm of the macro: Exile from Eden. Restoration. 

51:17-23 - At some point he will put Assyria and Babylon down. 

51:6 - The imagery is the heavens being peeled away [Rev 21-22]. 

[Chapter 52]

The people of God will be released. Israel's 1st goal was to teach them and then be an example to the Gentiles. They failed but through this Exile, the Messiah will get the pan on track. We today should be trying to live up to being a repentant Christian today and not be like Israel was. We can start evangelizing today by starting with our own home first and then by doing this, we will eventually be a light to the nations. 

52:10 - Will reveal himself and save all nations. Christ only fulfills this. Paul quotes Ch 52 in Hebrews. 

[Chapter 53]

Led out of Exile. This Messiah (53:1-13) will suffer a Messianic Woe. This can't be Israel. It is Jesus. He is not in appearance great. He will be despised and shamed and take their sins. He is a carpenter/day-laborer who did hard labor and grunt labor. He wasn't handsome. He was in poverty. He was homeless. God chose to be poorest of poor and not a person legally considered persona by Roman Law. He is kind of like the Jews driving out the sin-goat to the desert, taking them away. 

He went to the Cross, descended into Hades to free them and bring them to Paradise (to await the 2nd Coming). 

[Chapter 54]

References Genesis 9 a bit with Noah (54:9). The saints will be overcomers (Rev 21-22). The walls of New Jerusalem are great. Redemption of Gentiles.  

[Chapter 55]

Jesus quotes this in John 10, for Hannakuh. Return to God for his salvation is coming. Today is the Day of Salvation. Repent now. 

[Chapter 56]

"eunuchs". "Foreigners". Gentiles are unclean and mutiliated often. Not being able to have kids was a curse and they are considered to be cursed but these people under Christ won't be cursed, they will be redeemed. They will have the same promises with God's house. It doesn't matter what your status is, this salvation and new life is for all people. 

[Chapter 57]

57:1-2 - Seems unjust for righteous to die earlier. 

57:3-4 - He is taken away from the evil in the long run because this isn't the end. See the bigger picture. Next prophecy begins. 

57:3-14 - Idols. Rebuke. Whoring with nations. Those who follow God will inherit His promises. They refer to Molech with sacrificing cihldren. 

57:15-21 - Restoration for the remnant. The Lord Most High among angels. He also cares for the broken-hearted and the down-trodden. Anyone will get God if they repent. Refusal = no peace. 

[Chapter 58]

God tells them their fasts are useless because they don't actually help people or do what's right. True fasting is supposed to be done to help people and help us focus on God and do what's right. Jesus never opposes fasting. He says as a matter of fact "WHEN" not if we fast. 

[Chapter 59]

God will fix the situations Himself (v.13-16). Remove sin of all. Spirit will be upon them [Acts fulfilled].

[Chapter 60]

60:1-2 - Darkness is now being overtaken by light. Kings have become Christians (Gentiles).

60:9 - "islands". As far as one can go. "Tarsish" - Roman name, Tarsus. Paul may be somewhat prophesied here a little bit.

60:10-22 - This imagery is picked up in Rev 21-22.

[Chapter 61]

61:10-11 - About Jesus. Resurrection (61:10-11). Stichari is mentioned. Baptismal robes?

What is the "land"? If fulfilled through Jesus, then it disproves Zionism/Dispensationalism as it can't be about the modern state of Israel.

[Chapter 62]

62:2 - Jerusalem of God is given a new name. Spiritual. Holy people. Summoned by the Lord. "Sought-After City" and "Not Forsaken". He is not done with the covenant. It will see fulfillment in Christ as He takes the Cross.

[Chapter 63]

63:1-6 - Judgment Day. Day of Payback/Day of Redemption. Unrepentant sinners will be dealt with. 

63:7-14 - God. Pentacost. Israel makes a prayer to God to remember them and return.

[Chapter 64]

Prayer of Penance. 

[Chapter 65]

God's response to this prayer: They will pay for their sins if they do not repent. 

65:1-12 - For the sake of Christ He will save a remnant. 

65:13-25 - It is a new heaven and a new earth. Pictures of the ultimate end. It is going to be fixed. Paradise is restored.

[Chapter 66]

Temple will not be destroyed but God doesn't need it. You need to get over the Temple and the way they see the sacrifices. They live with a false piety. 

66:6-9 - One will give birth to this Messiah. Rejoice!

66:10-21 - Some Gentiles will be priests. His New Levites are prophesied here. This is a new priesthood [Hebrews discusses this].

66:22-24 - Last Judgment language. 

66:22-24 - Last Judgment language.

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