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Sunday, April 28, 2024

Gospel of Luke - Chapters 17-24 Notes

Chapter 17

17:1-10

He says to the Apostles that they are going to sin. He realizes and accepts that they will sin against Him. It is not an excuse for sin but it is the reality. "Offend" here in Greek is scandalina (scandal), committing a stumbling block. Someone who causes little ones to fall and sin by sinning. Warning his disciples that they need to behave so they can lead and help these people. This is done to warn them so they do not become like, the current leaders - the Pharisees. 

Tells them that if their brother sins, rebuke them and if they repent, forgive them. Keep forgiving no matter what and no matter how much they sin and repent. This leads to a path of repentance and spiritual growth. 

The Apostles say to Jesus "Increase our faith". Jesus responds that even if you have a little faith you could do a lot like plant a tree in the ocean (something impossible without God). He tells them to be humble as a servant/slave when they do the impossible. Servant mentality.

17:11-19

A break. The new section begins. In the middle of Samaria and Galilee, in a village, there were ten leper men who were standing far off. They all ask for mercy from Jesus so He cleanses them. Jesus tells them to go see the priests to show that they are clean. This took faith. They are just asking for Him to cure them. They will have to go see the priest and as they go, they become cleansed. This takes faith because the priest could have them killed on sight if they are found unclean. They must go to the priest to be brought back into the community and out of exile. 

The only one that returns to thank Him is the Samaritan, a half-breed Jew. The only one to give thanks was a faithful Samaritan. The 9 Jews were healed too but they did not come back and say thank you. The Samaritan is someone who is supposed to worship God wrongly but even he realizes what God has given him and thanks Him whereas the other 9 Jews who supposedly worship rightly, do not. Illustrates to us yet again Israel's unbelief that will ultimately bring about salvation for the Gentile world and all mankind.

17:20-37

Jesus is asked by the Pharisees when the Kingdom of God will come. This is the hope of the Pharisees that an earthly Messiah and God will come to set things straight. They want the Messiah to set up rule as king and face Rome. They are again trying to set a trap here because they hate Jesus. 

Jesus responds "The Kingdom of God comes not with observation". The Kingdom (noun) of God is among/amidst you. Christ Himself is the Kingdom. 

We often think of this imagery as a literal castle or something of that sort but it is the uncreated, invisible kingdom that will one day unite heaven and earth. Christ is installing it right now in fact (in their time). He will do so through the Resurrection and begin to rule on earth and take it back from Satan, sin, and death. What Jesus gives is much bigger and better than what they want (an earthly king who defeats Rome). 

The days will come when I am gone and you will wish I was back. Things will get bad in their lifetime. You know better when someone claims they are the Messiah. In the 40s AD, Emperor Caligula, who declared he was god and had spoken to Thor, was killed by the Royal Gaurd. His entire family and his illegitimate children as well. He had given orders for the Jews to worship him as a god by ordering his statue be placed in the Holy of Holies. This planted the seeds for the Jewish Revolt but during Nero's reign, a new revolt began. Nero sent General Titus to Jerusalem and he destroyed the Temple eventually under the new Emperor Vespasian, his father, in 70 AD. The Christians then fled to Pella before this event happened. 73 AD Vespasian ordered Leontopolis' Jewish temple also destroyed in Egypt to halt a revolt then as well. 

17:23

When there's a lightning storm you don't have to guess; you know. When the 2nd Coming happens, you will know. 

17:25

Before this happens, I will be rejected by this genea (people). Preterism is obviously false here as genea is not to be taken this woodenly literal as they desire. 

17:26-30

He will depart and return and at the period of time that He does come, it will be like the days of Noah and Lot. Flood and Sodom and Gomorrah get referenced here. When He returns, people won't know but will do whatever they want and desire and it will be a time of great evil. Noah and Lot got out of evil like this, because they were both faithful to God. Righteous among His people. 

17:31

"In that day" (shifts back here). This is not the 2nd Coming here that is being referenced. This is not the Day I am returning (2nd Coming) because He has already said it isn't. Just flee. Here Jesus does reference 70 AD. 

17:32-37

That night, the whole family will be sleeping and one will be taken and the other left. This is not a secret rapture. There is no secret and there is no rapture. 

Where are they taken? Jesus says, where the body is, the corpse is and the vultures devour them. 70 AD and 115-125 AD are the context here. When these events happen, if you are alive then, flee. They will all be killed in these revolts. 

Chapter 18

18:1-8

Jesus tells the Disciples a parable. Men should always pray and not lose heart. There was a judge in a city who didn't fear God or men. A lady (widow) demanded justice for her adversary causing her injustice and he decides to avenge her so she will leave him alone. Then the Lord (Jesus) said: shall not the elect be avenged? They cry out day and night to God. He will take vengeance for His People. He was just talking about not being part of these Jewish insurretions with Rome because God will take care of Caligula, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Hadrian, Trajan, and so on. Why does He wait? God wants them to have a chance at repentance. When He returns will He find any faith? It is not just for Rome He does this. It is for all of us. Do we forgive? Do we right wrongs? Do we repent? 

18:9-14

He spoke this to some who trust only themselves (Pharisees). Remember, the Pharisees are still here this whole time. Jesus talks of a Pharisee and a tax collector. The tax collector is justified because he repented and humbled himself. The Pharisee is prideful and acts like he is exalted and perfect. The Pharisee will be the one who is judged versus the repentant tax collector who has worked with Rome. The Pharisee is unrepentant and thinks he is the elect of God but isn't. The tax collector is.

18:15-17

The disciples rebuke people bringing their babies to Jesus. Children were not seen as people back then. Jesus calls them to Him and accepts the children as people and tells the disciples not to forbid them and to be low and humble themselves like a child (low-status person). 

18:18-27 

Self explanatory.

18:28-30

After this, the rich ruler leaves sorrowful. Peter says, see, we left and are in poverty following You. Jesus responds: Sacrificing for God's Kingdom will be rewarding.

18:31-34

Takes the Twelve aside to talk to them and tell them they will go to Jerusalem and He will be killed and raised from the dead. This is the road we are heading down. The disciples still don't get it until later. 

18:35-42

Then, they are in Jericho and there is a blind man begging on the road. The disciples tell him to be quiet but he refuses. They told him then that Jesus was coming by and so he cried out: "Son of David! Have mercy on me!". Jesus heals the man because of his faithfulness. Everyone sees this and begins praising God. 

Chapter 19

19:1-10

Jesus entered and passed through Jericho. There is a rich tax collector named Zaccheus. There is a large crowd and he is short so to see better he climbs atop a sycamore tree. This is noticed by Jesus and He tells him to come down and that they will be staying at his home. Zaccheus joyfully receives Jesus and people complain because Jesus is with a sinner. Zaccheus gives half of his goods to the poor and gives 4-fold to those that he has cheated in an act of repentance. He has repented and Jesus forgives Zaccheus, the CHIEF tax collector, a man who was formerly extorting fellow Jews through Rome for money. A modern example would be that a mob boss repents. 

19:11-27

As they heard this, Jesus said a parable because they thought the Kingdom was coming now. He gives a parable about a nobleman who leaves money and goes off to be a king. They reject him but he becomes the king anyway and comes back to see who has invested the money he left. 2 out of 3 of them did invest and one did not. The one who didn't give an excuse. He could have put it in a bank. The king gives 10 Midas to one of them and has people slain. They are expecting an earthly Messiah but instead, the Messiah will depart and return with a Kingdom. He will be rejected too and face judgment. When He goes, He will leave something behind and expect an investment from His servants when He returns. This is the Holy Spirit being referenced. What will we do now with this gift from God where He gives Himself? 

19:28-40

Jesus sends two disciples to borrow a colt for Him to ride into Jerusalem. He comes in and rides triumphantly. The disciples near Mt Olivet praise God and proclaim Him as King. The Pharisees freak out over this and tell Jesus to rebuke them. He responds in metaphor: Even if they were, the stones would cry.

The Pharisees freak out over this because the Romans could kill them over this. Plus, this is true anyways. He is the Messiah. 

19:41-44

Lament is given over Jerusalem's destruction. Jesus weeps. In 70 AD and the bar Kochba Rebellion, the Temple was destroyed and many Jewish rebels were killed while in bar Kochba Revolt, the entire city of Jerusalem was leveled and there would no longer be any chance for the Jews to come into the city for centuries after this except for one day where they are allowed to come in and mourn the Temple's falling date. 

19:45-48

Jesus drives out people who are buying and selling in the Temple. 

19:47

Jesus teaches daily and the chief priests and Pharisees, etc. want Him dead and destroyed. They can't make a move however because of the large amount of people. 

Chapter 20

20:1-8

A confrontation between Jesus and the Chief of the Pharisees/Pharisees begins. They ask who He thinks He is and by what and Who's authority He says what He says. Jesus responds by asking them a question about John the Baptist's baptism. Is it from heaven (God) or man? They answer back that they don't know because they can't really answer that so Jesus responds by telling them that He will then not answer them. As St. John the Baptist/Forerunner stood up to Herod, Jesus stood up to the Chief Priest. Jesus' authority is God. The chief priest's authority is Satan. 

20:9-19

God owns the land, not the chief priest. 

Jesus tells a parable about a man and his vineyard. The vinedressers (Pharisees) kill his messengers and then kill his son so he comes and destroys them and gives the land to the others. Jesus is the stone they reject. 

20:20-26

Pharisees then send spies to try and trick Jesus. They ask Him if they pay taxes to Ceasar or not and if it is lawful. It is Ceasar's coin so Jesus says to give to him what is his and give to God what is God's (which is not just the land they unlawfully possess but also everything in creation). They marvel at this because he also asks whose image Ceasar is made in? Ceasar is a man so he is made in the image of God. Ceasar belongs also to God. Everything and everyone does because He created all. We should be offering everything back to God and giving thanks.

20:27-40

Sadducees then try to trap Jesus. They deny the resurrection and Jesus skillfully uses only the Pentateuch to win His argument and owns them. The scribes even admit this loss.

The purpose of the Temple was destroyed by Christ at the Cross and 70 AD was for the rejection for that because the Jews still rejected the New Covenant. 

20:41-44

Christ asks "How can they say the Messiah is the Son of David? Quotes Psalm 109:1. David calls Him "Lord" so how is he also David's son? The answer is David calls Him Lord because the Messiah is God- incarnate, divine, and a man. 

20:45-47

Scribes are present so Christ says to beware of the scribes. 

Chapter 21

21:1-4

Continues. He sees the rich putting stuff in the treasury and sees a poor widow give two mites. The rich are showboating their wealth while this poor widow gives all she has to God without a show. Corruption is evident here.

21:5-19

Some speak of how nice the Temple is and looks so Jesus prophesies that the Temple will be destroyed. They ask when and what sign will there be? Jesus tells them people will claim to be the Messiah (60s and bar Kochba again) and not follow them. If you hear about war etc. don't fear this for the end will not come immediately. He makes a point of this so we must keep this in mind and distinguish between the events of 70 AD, bar Kochba, and the 2nd Coming. 

A break here. THEN. 

Many things will take place before the 2nd Coming so stay faithful for your patience and faithfulness will save your souls. These forces have no power/control over you. 

21:20-24

When Jerusalem is surrounded (by Rome), know that its destruction is near. God will use the Romans to enact His judgment, vengeance, and justice. He warns everyone to flee from this event. The only authority Rome has is what God gives them for this. 

"And Jerusalem will be trampled by Gentiles until the time of the Gentiles is filled". Jerusalem will be leveled by Rome in bar Kochba Revolt. Rome and Gentile's cup of iniquity will also be filled one day. Jerusalem's time is coming THEN, but the Romans, as all Gentiles will, also be held accountable and judged one day. 

21:25-28

There is going to be a time when it will end and He will return and then it will be a transition from this age to the next. 

21:29-33

They asked for a sign and this will be it. They will know He is the Messiah when His words come true in 70 AD and during the Bar Kochba Rebellion. This will be a confirmation of their faith. St. Luke uses genos; genea here as people and not 40 years. His people the Jews will not be destroyed by either of these events. His words will come to pass, however. 

21:34-38

Application here. Practically, you need to watch yourself and keep focus on God versus focus on the world. 

Day- He taught. Night - He stayed on Mount Olivet.

Chapter 22

22:1-6

The Feast of Unleavened Bread (Passover/Pascha). They were scared of the people so the Pharisees plot how to get away with killing Jesus. Satan possesses and enters Judas and he went to betray Jesus for money. 

22:7-13

The Day of Unleavened Bread came when the Passover must be killed. Jesus sends Peter and John to prepare Passover so they can eat it. The 10th Plague; the celebration of it. The people became a part of it. He is about to transform that event and that Passover meal into something New. Himself He shall offer as the Paschal Lamb. 

Where will we eat? Jesus tells them and they listen and prepare it in a guy's home. Jesus knows exactly what is unfolding. Exactly as He knew and said it would. 

22:14-19

This is the last time I will eat the Passover meal. [Jesus fulfills the Sabbath and Pascha through His death and resurrection]. The Eucharist is instituted here. Jesus broke bread, gave thanks, and said, "Do this in remembrance of Me". He is here setting this up as part of worship; taking the place of the Passover meal and sacrifices [Numbers 10:10 of sacrifices]. 

The Eucharist is the fulfillment of the OT rituals. The Eucharist is our central act of worship. It fulfills all of the sacrificial systems. Without the Eucharist, Christians who refuse to do the Eucharist are in apostasy and unbiblical. 

22:20-23

Jesus does not deny Judas communion. "This cup is the New Covenant in my blood, which is shed for you. Behold! The hand of My Betrayer is with Me"... 

The disciples question among themselves and each other who is going to betray Him. 

22:24-27

They dispute next over who is the greatest. They are not in any better place than Judas really because they will abandon Him too. Despite where they are currently, Jesus corrects them. Be servants like I (Jesus) am currently serving you. 

22:28-30

Tells them they will be His apostles and leaders. Even the authority of the apostles is centered around the Eucharist. Jesus is the King of the Kingdom. They will be the judges of the 12 Tribes of Israel. 

22:31-34

Jesus tells Simon Peter that Satan wants him and has asked for him but Jesus has prayed and interceded. So when Peter betrays Jesus and is tested and returns, Jesus tells him to strengthen his brothers. 

22:35-38

He reminds them of when He sent them with nothing and now says this is different. There are still things to prepare for. There is a goal and a purpose here in all this but they still don't understand. 

22:39-46

They go to Mount of Olives to sleep. He goes to pray and an angel strengthens Him. He knows He will die. He is God-Incarnate. St. Luke emphasises that Jesus is God but also Jesus is human and shares the same nature with us. Our nature is to live. Death was not originally part of the plan. Death is an enemy. Jesus does not dear it but it is foreign to Him. Death has no claim on Jesus because He is sinless. One human will hypostatically united with the Divine Will which takes precedence over the human will. So He is willingly making the sacrifice. 

"Sweat drops of blood" shows up in later versions of Luke 22:44 and is not found in the older texts. 

22:47-53

Judas betrays Jesus. He is arrested. The disciples try to fight and a servant of the Pharisees gets his ear cut off in the process but Jesus heals the man. Jesus tells the chief priests and elders that they are out here at night like demons. Here we have the leaders and they are out here ready to kill Him. He calls them to repentance even here. 

22:54-65

Peter follows and denies Jesus is His Lord 3x as Jesus predicted. Jesus is mocked and beaten. They blindfold Jesus and beat Him telling Him mockingly to prophesy and say who is hitting Him. They continue blaspheming.

22:66-71

It is day now and they hold a Sanhedrin mock council. Jesus answers them that yes, He is the Messiah. I am God the Son. And says I will ascend (v. 69) as well. The Ascension is referenced in verse 69.

Chapter 23

23:1-5

They take Jesus to Pilate, Governor of Judaea. They tell him that Jesus is claiming to be Messiah and King. Pilate asks him "Are you King of the Jews?" Jesus answers "You say so". The Pharisees begin lying about Jesus here too. Pilate says he finds no fault in this man. This seems odd but in the other gospels we know Pilate's wife warned him about a premonitious dream she'd had and he didn't take this seriously. These non-persona Jews have brought him a homeless peasant Galilean Jew who has declared He is the Messiah. The Pharisees begin getting even more fierce and say that He will stir up the people. 

23:6-12

Pilate found out Jesus was a Galilean so he sent Jesus to Herod, the ethnarch, who governs for him. Herod gets excited and questions Jesus who says nothing to Herod. Herod then beats Jesus too and sends him back to Pilate. That day Pilate and Herod became friends after Herod sent Jesus back. 

23:13-25

Herod and Pilate both find Jesus innocent. He decides because it is the feast that he will release prisoners and flog them (which could kill a person because the instrument used does tear pieces of your body off). They demand Barabbas to be freed instead of Jesus. Barabbas had actually revolted and murdered a Roman possibly. The Pharisees demand an unrighteous person go free while a righteous man is condemned. They demand Jesus be crucified. The mob is relentless enough that Pilate relents and lets Jesus be condemned and innocently executed. Everyone here is complicit in killing Jesus and working for Satan.

23:26-31

As they led Him away, Simon the Cyrenian was made to help carry Jesus' crucifix after they had just flogged Him. The people follow and some weep for Him but Jesus tells them to weep for themselves and their children because there will be a judgment on Jerusalem (70 and bar Kochba). 

22:32-38

Jesus is crucified on "the Skull" Calvary with two criminals. Jesus prays and forgives His murderers. They divide His garments and cast lots. The rulers sneer, soldiers mocked Him, and they put an inscription in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew saying: This is the King of the Jews - a titulus. 

Pilate is making a point to mock the Jews' messiah and make sure everyone knows not to cause trouble here by doing this. 

23:39-43

One criminal on the cross mocks Jesus while the other says to stop because we (them two) deserve this. This Jesus is innocent and he asks Jesus to forgive Him and seems to recognize Jesus is God and the Christ who is dying beside him. The criminal (Didisymus) entrusts his salvation in Christ and Jesus says "Truly, You will be with Me in Paradise". 

23:44-49

It is pitch black and still daytime. The sun was darkened and the veil was torn. God is leaving the Temple and this people. The veil being torn exposes that there is nothing there. God is not there. Jesus dies, breathing His last. The centurion then says, "He was a righteous man" -St. Longinus-

Some saw it - followers from a distance heard it said. 

23:50-56

Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin asks for the body of Jesus to bury Him. Pilate allows it. This is risky because Pilate could have had Him killed. Jesus is buried in the tomb. It is Friday and Passover begins before sunset Saturday. The women observed did Sabbath and on Sunday. Luke gives us good history and eyewitnesses here.

Chapter 24

24:1-12

The women come to the tomb. The stone is rolled away. There is not Jesus' body in there but they meet two men in shining garments (angels). They are afraid but are told He is Risen. They remind the women what Jesus said to them so they recall it and go tell the 11 disciples and the rest. The women listed are Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary mother of James, and the other women with them. The Apostles don't believe them but Peter runs to the tomb and sees He is gone. 

24:13-36

Two disciples were in a village called Emmaus that is 7 miles from Jerusalem [this place is mentioned only here and in 1 Maccabees and is for a reason]. St. Luke mentions this place because the Jews' picture of the messiah was Judas Maccabeaus as the prime example and representation of that. They were talking about all of this that had happened and as they are, these two guys see Jesus but don't recognize Him after His resurrection. 

If they were making this up, why would they include this detail? They wouldn't because it is too odd and that makes it more legitimate actually for a true eyewitness and testimony. Jesus talks to them and asks them a question about what they are talking about. St. Cleopas answers Him about Jesus. They tell Jesus that Jesus must have been a prophet and was unjustly killed. They say they were hoping He was the Messiah and did what Judas Maccabeaus did but he was executed. They also tell Jesus that they don't know where His body is and about angels. Jesus calls them foolish.

David suffered and entered his glory as King. David is the example in the OT. OT is full of examples and points to Jesus being the Messiah obviously. They get to Emmaus and Jesus says He'd like to go further. THey all eat together and Jesus breaks bread and gives it to them. Then it clicks that this is Him and He vanishes from their sight. They walk all day (7 miles) and it is dark so they get up to go back to Jerusalem and find and tell the 11 what happened. The Lord has appeared to Simon and the rest of the 11. Jesus reappears.

24:36-43

Jesus reappears and says "Peace to you". They freak out thinking that He is a ghost or a spirit. There are a lot of Greek ghost stories so it makes sense that they thought He was a spirit at first. Jesus shows that He is really human and has risen. He lets them touch Him and see His flesh and bones. Jesus also eats fish and honeycomb.

24:44-49

He enlightens them. All those things I told you happened were fulfilled. This was the plan. Now repentance and forgiveness of sins is to all nations (Gentiles too). He promises God the Holy Spirit to them who will grant them power. 

24:50-53

Ascension here. He leads them and blesses them and then is carried to Heaven. They worship Him, return to Jerusalem with joy, and praise Him in the Temple. The Temple is symbolically rededicated by the Apostles like the Jews did when Judas Maccabeaus retook Jerusalem. 

Even though God has left the Temple and predicts it will fall and be destroyed one day this does not mean that the religion of the Old Testament is gone and dead. Rather, the New Covenant is the fulfillment of it and now the Pharisees and etc. who reject Christ and don't repent will be cut off. 

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